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PostPosted: Wed Jul 11, 2012 5:29 pm
by vanlose kid
Sven Lindqvist: a life in writing

'We have created a lifestyle which makes injustice permanent and inescapable'

Stuart Jeffries, Friday 22 June 2012 22.54 BST

When Sven Lindqvist was a boy, he saw a photograph of what British troops found in Buchenwald. "The heaps of naked bodies, people who obviously had been starving and worked to death, burned in one's eyes," he says. A few years later, aged 17, he read Heart of Darkness. In a shady grove, Marlow discovers black Africans worked shamelessly by white colonialists lying "in all the attitudes of pain, abandonment and despair … They were dying slowly - it was very clear."

"These two pictures moved into each other for me," says Lindqvist. "I saw them as one image of extermination." When he first read Heart of Darkness, Lindqvist took Conrad to be prophesying what was coming rather than writing about what he had seen. But later he became convinced that the kind of racist extermination Conrad witnessed prefigured that of Hitler.

In the Swede's favourite and perhaps best book, Exterminate All the Brutes, first published in 1992, Lindqvist writes that "the Germans have been made sole scapegoats of extermination that are actually a common European heritage … The ideas he [Hitler] and all other western people in his childhood breathed were soaked in the conviction that imperialism was a biologically necessary process, which, according to the laws of nature, leads to the inevitable destruction of the lower races. It was a conviction which had already cost millions of lives before Hitler provided his highly personal application."

This, to put it mildly, is a controversial view. For example, Jewish philosopher Steven T Katz in his 1994 book The Holocaust in Historical Context argued for the "phenomenological uniqueness of the Holocaust". And during the historikerstreit (historians' quarrel) in 1980s Germany, Ernst Nolte provoked fury among fellow intellectuals with his contention that the Holocaust was Hitler's "distorted copy" of Stalin's extermination of the Kulaks. For Lindqvist, Nolte's mistake was to look east for Hitler's inspiration. He should have looked west. Lindqvist writes: "When Hitler sought Lebensraum in the east it was a continental equivalent of the British empire."

"There are very substantial differences between the Holocaust and other genocides," he says. "These other genocides can still be reasons for, and causes of, the Holocaust." In Exterminate All the Brutes Lindqvist suggests that we have airbrushed our past: "We do not want to remember. We want genocide to have begun and ended with nazism. That is what is most comforting." Now 20 years after the first Swedish edition, he says with some pride, that thanks to his book there is a thriving field of historical research on the effect of colonial atrocities on Nazi crimes.

"Exterminate all the brutes" are the words of Kurtz, the ivory-trading murderer and imperialist demi-god whom Marlow travelled up the Congo river to meet. "Why," writes Lindqvist, "did Kurtz end his report on the civilising task of the white man in Africa with these words? Why did Conrad make them stand out as a summary of all the high-flown rhetoric on Europe's responsibilities to the peoples of other continents?"

Lindqvist tried to answer these questions in a book that is extraordinary for not being straightforward historical text but travel diary. He wrote it while crossing the Sahara on buses and, at the same time, journeying through the history of extermination. Iain Sinclair once divided writers into pods (writers who stay in their studies) and peds (writers who roam and walk) – Lindqvist is decidedly of the latter temperament. On the road, he considers what Darwin wrote in The Descent of Man: "The civilised races of man will almost certainly exterminate and replace throughout the world the savage races" – words used by him to justify colonial extermination of native peoples. Lindqvist reflects on what Darwin's cousin, Francis Galton, and later European racial biologists, would argue to justify the genocide of non-whites across the world. He steeps himself in German thinkers whose genocidal texts provided sham-intellectual justification for murdering 6 million Jews.

Lindqvist has often worked this way and, in 30 books written over the past half century, has developed a literary form flexible enough for him to travel in time as much as space, combining the personal and the political, mingling historical investigation, travel and literary reportage and – increasingly – fierce polemic. He writes in terse numbered paragraphs, following Nietzsche's aphoristic style. He'll leap from an account of a dream into a passage of shattering political rage. In the penultimate paragraph 168 of Exterminate All the Brutes, for instance, he writes: "Everywhere in the world where knowledge is being suppressed, knowledge that, if it were made known, would shatter our image of the world and force us to question ourselves – everywhere there Heart of Darkness is being enacted."

Lindqvist and I are meeting at the home of Sigrid Rausing, heiress to the Tetra Pak millions who has deployed her money to bankroll Granta, publisher of Lindqvist's books in English. To celebrate his 80th birthday this year, Granta is reissuing three volumes of his best books and publishing one in English for the first time. Rausing's home is a little outpost of Sweden: Lindqvist sips tea from a Moomin Troll mug; on the walls are elegant Swedish artworks including a tapestry depicting Biblical scenes.

He points at his twitching leg, which I thought a sign of his irritation at my inept questions. But no: "I've had Parkinson's for eight years. I discovered it when I was driving a car. An extremely small difference in pressure on the pedal changes speed a great deal. I didn't think it was a fault of mine that my car kept jumping, I thought it was the fault of construction of all cars. It turned out I had Parkinson's. Now I don't drive."

Parkinson's and age have curbed lifelong wanderlust. "Travelling at my age, even if you don't have Parkinson's, is not good idea." He was born in Stockholm in 1932 and was the first in his family to leave Sweden. "Nobody I knew left except an Aga engineer who had left briefly on technical business." He departed his homeland in 1947 for the first time to study French and German in Switzerland. "I travelled through Germany by train. Everywhere was destroyed. Germans were running along the train crying for bread. Nothing left of whole cities. That was Europe."

Four decades later, those experiences would figure in his most critically feted book in English, A History of Bombing (first published in Swedish in 1999 and in English in 2001). Lindqvist wrote of how the evils Europeans perpetrated in their colonies prefigured the violence they would commit against each other at home: "Once a commander has set fire to an African capital," he wrote, "might he have learned to burn Paris or Berlin? The type of war that Europe had allowed itself to wage against three-quarters of humanity – was that what came back to haunt us in the 20th century?"

The fractured structure of that book – Lindqvist suggests multiple entry paths through its numbered paragraphs, breaking each journey through the text into fragments – is emblematic of the disruption caused by the aerial bomb. Ever since 1 November 1911 when an Italian lieutenant threw a grenade from his delicate plane, the dream of exterminating from the air with minimal risk to bombers has been realised, he argues. The destroyer of German cities, Arthur "Bomber" Harris scored his "first civilian hits", in 1919 in Kabul, writes Lindqvist. He argues that the aerial bombing that marked the second world war and now has its culmination in unmanned drones controlled from Nevada as they bomb Afghan villages, had its roots in the colonial policy of exterminating "savages" from the air.

In a chilling afterward to the 2012 edition he writes that "The drone war is the unmanned opposite of the mass armies of the Great War. Convenient – so long as the other side hasn't got one." But, he reminds us, drones are dirt cheap. "What if the drone becomes every man's or at least every state's weapon? Will it not be too easy to wage war, if all you risk are machines, not soldiers?" Perhaps in the future Nevada will be bombed by drones controlled from Afghan villages.

Lindqvist suggests that the British should learn from Germans in reflecting on their misdeeds. "The Germans are much more thorough than other peoples in researching their crimes and atrocities. The bombing story really started with the RAF in India, Afghanistan, Iraq, Kenya, Darfur, Egypt, but it is a story scarcely told."

The Sven Lindqvist of such fiercely polemical works as these is remote from the teenager who first became obsessed with literature. "I wasn't politically engaged in my youth. I was more engaged by Nietzsche and Goethe. My Swedish master was Vilhelm Ekelund, a poet, writer of aphorisms and follower of Nietzsche." In his 20s he was an iconoclastic aesthete, who learned Chinese with the great Swedish sinologist, Bernard Karlgren, in Stockholm, not out of political commitment to Mao's recent revolution, but out of love for a venerable culture of grace and simplicity which, he thought, represented the blissful antithesis of the consumerist west.

One of Lindqvist's earliest books was called Advertising Is Lethal. "It's a critique of advertising and marketing. I wrote it when I had recently married and we had to buy everything to make a household. I revolted against the idea that I would have to do work I didn't want to do just in order to pay instalments on a sofa. I'd much rather not have a sofa and use my time to do some reading, writing, loving and experiencing life."

The initial failure of that book – "it got enormously bad reviews because it was so one-sided" – made Lindqvist think that changing a corrupt society was impossible. He left his homeland in the early 60s to spend two years in China, steeping himself in its language and calligraphy. How odd that you weren't there to engage with socialist revolution. "It seemed strange in those days to be interested in Chinese literature and culture. Nobody thought the Chinese would become economically powerful, nor that the Chinese language would become à la mode and needed by big business."

That aestheticised self, steeped in Chinese culture, seeking mystic calm and refuge from a degraded west, was submitted to something very like Maoist self-criticism in his 1967 book The Myth of Wu Tao-Tzu, possibly his finest and certainly most philosophically profound work which Granta is to publish in English for the first time in August. The myth is that of the eponymous artist who stepped into his painting as the culmination of his work and to elude quotidian reality. The book later follows Lindqvist as he journeys through China, India and Afghanistan, experiencing a political awakening. During the book's journey, he challenges those who have used art as escape from an insufferable world – in particular Herman Hesse, whom he admired. He rejects too his own literary style: "My friends are perhaps right when they say that ever since then my writing has lost its beauty and harmony. What are beauty and harmony when you are running for dear life between crumbling walls? I am beginning to believe my artistic endeavours have been a mistake."

He rounds on Hesse, who wrote his iconoclastic novel The Glass Bead Game, which Lindqvist adored, between 1931 and 1943. The admirer came to see Hesse's rarefied project as despicable, a withdrawal from an intolerable Europe when engaging with nazism was necessary. He wrote: "Is it the function of art to make mass graves banal? Is it the task of thought to make starvation uninteresting? Spiritual happiness that makes the world irrelevant will also make suffering, oppression and extermination irrelevant."

Like Axel Heyst, the Swedish protagonist of Conrad's Victory, Lindqvist was dragged back into the vile real world from mere renunciation. It became his task to use his literary art in an opposite way to Hesse, even though he despaired of what literature might achieve or of the capacity of rich Europeans to change. "We have created a lifestyle which makes injustice permanent and inescapable … Is the conclusion clear?" he howls towards the end of The Myth of Wu Tao-Tzu. "We have to become poor again. Or uphold our privileges with violence. No people, even less a continent, has voluntarily chosen poverty. Nor are there any prospects of us being about to."

Subsequently, Lindqvist wrote increasingly furious books his targets did not want to read. The apogee, for me, is his book Terra Nullius, a 2005 Australia travelogue that indicts Britons and white Australians for terrible abuses such as the transportation of Aborigine women to the chillingly named Isle of the Dead where they were given inappropriate and often fatal syphilis treatment, and the extensive forced separation of "half-blood" children from their families to prison-like camps. How was that received in Australia? "It seems as if it was largely ignored," he says. "An Australian [Peter Conrad] wrote a very superficial article in the Observer. I think his judgment doomed the book for Australians – as though there was nothing to discuss."

One day, aged 53, Lindqvist was sitting in a Stockholm sauna and fell to chatting with a muscle-bound skinhead who convinced him that he ought to try bodybuilding. The relatively weedy intellectual decided to attend the local gym. The result was an epiphany as radical as his awakening as a politically engaged writer. Bench Press (Sweden 1988, UK 2003) traced Lindqvist doing to his body what Ezra Pound recommended the writer do to text: "A writer's work can have definition. Pound called it being sparing with the mortar. The less mortar, the sharper the definition. That's what I've always striven for." Like Arnold Schwarzenegger or Yukio Mishima, he realised himself by pounding his body, finding bliss in pumping iron and remembering thereby long-repressed childhood dreams, including ones about the Sahara and the longings he had to go alone into its empty spaces.

He fulfilled that dream by travelling across the Sahara in his mid 50s. He had just broken up from Cecilia, his wife of 33 years, with whom he had made a trip through Latin America in the 1960s with their three-year-old son, Aron. "As a child I dreamt about fire eaters and well divers, about sandstorms and desert lakes. I planned a great journey in the Sahara. Now I am here. I am alone," he later wrote. That loneliness was, like bodybuilding, a welcome challenge.

"The best part of suddenly encountering solitude is that it provides training: you discover your life when you have to start using its long-since forgotten and atrophied muscles." The book of those travels, Desert Divers, found Lindqvist, as ever, meditating on literature (especially the Sahara-set books of Gide and Saint-Exupéry), imperialism – and himself. The image of the divers who descended bravely into the wells to find water beneath the desert becomes, as Richard Gott wrote, "a metaphor for the European adventurers who had also plunged into the environment of the desert, excited both by its strangeness and by the sense of danger". It is currently published by Granta along with Exterminate All the Brutes as a single volume called Saharan Journey.

Lindqvist now lives with his second wife Agneta Stark, an economist, in a flat in Stockholm. His solitary wanderings are, perhaps, over. That said, when I met him he had travelled to London to hole up alone in a boat suspended above the Queen Elizabeth Hall. The art commissioners Artangel had invited him to write a 2,000-word text while resident there for a week. It was a freighted project: the former traveller held in suspended animation, alone with his laptop.

The text he wrote, entitled "A London Address", hardly disappoints. Inspired by Jack London's 1903 book People of the Abyss about how imperial London treated its East End poor, Lindqvist reflects on the same subject a century on as the capital of imperial shame postures and struts Olympian. "We have created a world where … capital breeds capital with very little need for the Eastenders of the world. Tell me what will happen when the majority of mankind has become technologically superfluous." We have, if Lindvist is right, brought the heart of darkness home.

• Sven Lindqvist will be appearing at the Edinburgh International book festival on August 14. Read the full text of his A London Address at ... in-writing


Re: A New Europe: Anti-Semitism, Islamophobia, Nation-State

PostPosted: Thu Jul 26, 2012 1:28 pm
by American Dream ... d-25072012

Nazi military survival camps in Poland


Military camps in southern Poland organized by the far-right organisations are not anything new in this country.

The most dramatic result of existence of such camps, is death of two students from Wrocław: Anna Kembrowska and Robert Odżga. Those two people went for a trip to Góry Stołowe. They left their home town on the 15th of August and were going to the place where other students had organized their camp. After two days, contact with them was lost. In reaction, friends and family informed the police.

Later on, both of them were found dead in the territory of the National Park. Robert was shot dead to the back of the head. Anna died from a shot between the eyes. Police claimed that they were killed from different weapons at the same moment (thus suggesting multiple criminals involved). As detective Janusz Bartkiewicz said - there was no doubt that they were killed by professionals.

Although this case remained as an unsolved mystery for quite some time, Bartkiewicz did not stop his job. After the next three years, he and his colleges discovered that at the same time and the same place where the two people mentioned lost their lives, there was a survival camp being established. The investigation has shown that The camp was full of neonazi activists associated with Blood & Honour from England, Poland, France, Russia, Slovakia and Italy. That very survival camp had a long history, being organized there annually for many years.

What’s more, just after Anna and Robert were killed, neonazis ran away from the Góry Stołowe. They came back after three years, where an investigation was stopped by Barkiewicz’s superiors. However, he was in fact, close to catching a little group from Pomerania possibly involved in the act of murder.

Meanwhile, the Polish government protected their villains. The situation was dramatic for Even if police officers and the whole of society wanted to get murders (who killed innocents just to celebrate anniversaries of Rudolf Hess death (17th of August, the date of murder)) the state continued to protect its orderliness thus keeping the illusion of the rule of law.

German neonazis and their fifth column

About such camps in Poland tells us Manuel “Pistol” Bauer. German neonazi sentences for seting on fire Turkish kebab shops. He says that on such camps they both do physical trainings and political indoctrination. He also says that information about such camps or concerts are also smokescreens for their more dangerous activism they do at the same time.

Some Polish neonazis help their German comrades in producing propaganda which is illegal in Germany. Deutsche Stimme, newspaper of NPD is printed in Zielona Góra, the capital of Lubuskie Province.

Lubuskie and Lower Silesian are the two provinces where National Rebirth of Poland is active. This fascist organisation belongs to European National Front with NPD. It is almost sure that National Rebirth of Poland activists are responsible for printing NPD newspaper.

They do not care that their comrades attack Polish people in Germany and call them “criminalists”.

Camp of Polish Breiviks

National Rebirth of Poland nowadays is to weak to organize far right militias. But other neonazi groups to this. The men on the photo are Autonome Nationalists and members of National Radical Camp.

The camp was not organized in conspiracy. Photo was stolen from facebook fanpage of the last edition of military camp called “Survive to Win”. Today Fascists show themselves as a group of Polish Patriots who are going to protect their fatherland. They train before next demonstration against gays, feminists, leftists. Everything in a country where Blood & Honour kills. Everything in democratic country.

After all physical exercises Polish Patriots who denies all accusations of Fascism had some kind of cultural activity – Nordica concert.

Nordica (former name Agressiva 88) is one of the strongest nazi rock bands in Poland associated with Blood & Honour. Their best known songs are: Proud of the Overhuman, National Socialists and White Whore of a Nigger.

All organizations mentioned in this article except Blood & Honour are going to organize marches to “celebrate” Warsaw Rising against Hitler. First demonstrations organized by National Rebirth of Poland and Autonome Nationalists takes place in Chełmża few days before the anniversary of Warsaw Rising. The second one organized by Mazovian group of National Radical Camp takes place on 1st of August.

They are more and more active and use all anniversaries they can to proclaim their xenophobia and sick ideology.

Re: A New Europe: Anti-Semitism, Islamophobia, Nation-State

PostPosted: Thu Jul 26, 2012 3:03 pm
by American Dream


Holocaust survivor, Claire Soria holds a photograph of her father and mother, who perished in Auschwitz, the largest Nazi concentration camp, located in southern Poland.

Re: A New Europe: Anti-Semitism, Islamophobia, Nation-State

PostPosted: Fri Jul 27, 2012 2:35 pm
by American Dream ... ontinues_1

2 July 2012

German intelligence chief Heinz Fromm quits over murders

Heinz Fromm, head of Germany's domestic intelligence agency,
in February 2012 Mr Fromm took the helm of the agency in 2000 -
the year the murders began

The head of Germany's domestic intelligence agency, Heinz Fromm, has resigned after a series of blunders in an investigation into a neo-Nazi cell.

The group is believed to have killed at least 10 people, most of them Turkish immigrants, over a seven-year period and then evaded capture.

A woman, Beate Zschaepe, is awaiting trial over the murders.

Mr Fromm's agency came under fresh fire last week when it emerged it shredded key documents relating to the case.

The 63-year-old has headed the Office for the Protection of the Constitution since 2000, the year the murders began.

He announced his decision to take early retirement to Interior Minister Hans-Peter Friedrich.

Mr Friedrich said Mr Fromm had been "surprised and distressed about the mistakes by employees in his authority".

"He is, like me, deeply worried about the resulting loss of confidence in the domestic intelligence agency," the minister said.


The failure of the German security services to halt the string of murders seemingly carried out by the trio who called themselves the National Socialist Underground shocked the German public when it emerged last December.

The neo-Nazi group, which has been dubbed the Zwickau cell,
operated undetected for 11 years

The case only surfaced when two of the three were found dead in an apparent suicide pact and Beate Zschaepe blew up her rented flat in the east German city of Zwickau and then handed herself in to police.

In February, German Chancellor Angela Merkel described the case as "a disgrace".

She appealed for forgiveness from the families of the victims - eight businessmen of Turkish origin, one businessman of Greek origin and one German policewoman.

The group also injured more than 20 people in two bomb attacks on people of Turkish origin, as well as carrying out over a dozen bank robberies.

Authorities including the police have admitted making critical mistakes in investigating the case, and have vowed to improve regional and national intelligence co-operation.

Last week it emerged at an intelligence oversight committee that an agency official had shredded key documents about the activities of far-right informers, just one day after it was revealed that the cell was involved in the murders.

Re: A New Europe: Anti-Semitism, Islamophobia, Nation-State

PostPosted: Fri Jul 27, 2012 2:44 pm
by American Dream ... -collusion

Germany: Nazi terror and state collusion

Published on Tuesday, 01 November 2011

GERMANY HAS BEEN SHOCKED BY THE REVELATION THAT a nazi terror cell that called itself the National Socialist Underground (NSU) carried out at least ten assassinations over 13 years without being stopped by the police or secret service. Two men and one woman killed eight Turkish people, a Greek and a police woman during 13 years in which they were on the run after a bomb-making factory was discovered in 1998 in a garage rented by the woman in Jena, eastern Germany.

As if that were not bad enough, the Hessen branch of the domestic intelligence service, the Verfassungsschutz, admitted that one of its agents was present in April 2006 when two members of the NSU shot dead a 21-year-old Turkish man in an internet cafe. The agent had openly far-right views and was known in the village where he grew up as "Little Adolf". When police raided his flat after the murder they found extracts from Hitler's Mein Kampf. There are unconfirmed reports that the agent was present at three or more other nazi murder scenes.

The nazi cell was discovered when the two men, Uwe Mundlos and Uwe Böhnhardt, were found dead on 4 November in a rented camper van following a bank robbery that went wrong. A post mortem revealed that the older man killed the other by shooting him in the forehead, then put the gun in his own mouth and pulled the trigger, in an alleged suicide pact.

The woman, Beate Zschäpe, 36, handed herself in to the police in Jena after allegedly setting fire to the house she shared with the two men in Zwickau, Saxony, a town near the Czech border. She has been charged with founding a terrorist organisation and arson.

The camper van in which the two dead men were found.

Investigators only linked them to the series of unsolved crimes after searching their home and vehicles and finding the guns used in the nine killings of shopkeepers and food vendors from 2000 to 2006 and the police woman in Heilbronn in 2007. At the time the police blamed many of the murders on a supposed Turkish gang war.

The police also found what looked like a hitlist of 88 possible targets including two prominent members of the Bundestag and representatives of Turkish and Islamic groups. The number 88 has significance among nazis as it corresponds in the alphabet to HH, standing for Heil Hitler. There was also a DVD in which the two dead men boasted of their crimes and threatened more killings.

As well as the murders, the nazis are suspected of at least 14 bank robberies and two nail bomb attacks. The police are looking at all unsolved crimes since 1998 that might have had xenophobic motives. There have been three other arrests and federal prosecutors are investigating whether the NSU has other members. Police believe at least 20 people helped the three core members of the NSU between 1998 and 2011.

A resolution passed by the Bundestag on 22 November called for "a thorough investigation into the links between the murders and the rightwing extremist milieu from which they emerged". A week previously the Christian Democratic Union, the largest party in the governing coalition, voted at its party conference for a ban on the German Democratic Party (NPD), Germany's largest nazi party, which contests elections.

The revelations so far are not so surprising for those who have monitored the often murderous antics of organisations such as Gladio, the Cold War network across Europe set up by Nato as a "stay-behind" force intended, on paper, only to operate in the event that the Soviet Union and its Communist allies struck against the West.

Gladio recruited former military personnel, often ex-special forces, sometimes with the cooperation of national security services and, in some places at least, financed by the CIA.

Beate Zschäpe, who handed herself in to police

Searchlight and others revealed that Gladio was not content to wait for any Soviet move but worked to its own agenda, building relationships with existing far-right organisations and creating its own, such as Column 88 in Britain. In Italy Gladio made efforts to advance the destabilisation of society with a series of bombings over many years to launch the "strategy of tension", working with the fascist Armed Revolutionary Nuclei, led by Roberto Fiore, the friend and former mentor of the British National Party leader Nick Griffin. Italy had a strong Communist party at the time and Gladio tried to shift Italy to the right.

In Belgium shoppers in supermarkets were gunned down by men described at the time as being part of leftwing terrorist cells. They turned out to be serving or former police officers.

The British section ran training camps for young, potentially fanatical members of the extremist British Movement and discussed pre-emptive strikes against members of the TUC and a wide range of people covering all shades of the left including MPs.

Uwe Böhnhardt and Uwe Mundlos

Most people thought that Gladio and its associates had melted away with the end of the Cold War but it seems it, or a successor organisation, has lived on at least in Germany. The NSU robbed banks to finance its activities and killed members of ethnic minority communities, with the suspected collusion of an intelligence service agent whose extreme political views were known but apparently ignored. These features fit the bill for a Gladio-style operation.

A question remains over why the NSU killed the police woman, Michele Kiesewetter. Had she discovered something or was she intended to look like another alleged victim of a a non-existent Turkish gang war? Or was she connected with the far right herself? It appears that her father tried to rent a bar in the eastern German state of Thüringen that was used by nazis for meetings. A chef employed at the bar had the same surname, Zschäpe, as the female NSU member.

Another question is why Zschäpe handed herself in. Was she worried that she might otherwise be found in a burning car with a bullet in her head, as happened in Italy after the nazi Bologna bombing in 1980, when far-right exiles were tempted to return home, only to be deemed unreliable and killed in cold blood by special police units. At the time Searchlight went to press, she had not told the police anything.

Guns found at the NSU cell’s burnt out house in Zwickau.

One of the excuses given for the authorities' apparent inability to stop the NSU is that it operated in the former communist East Germany. But the intelligence service agent linked with the cell was based in Hessen in western Germany. That may be where investigators may find answers to the many questions they should have about the NSU's operations. One line of investigation might be a man named Schinko, who is the running boy for the long-time German nazi and convicted criminal Manfred Roeder. Both of them are based in Hessen.

Roeder has for many years maintained a relationship with British nazis including the veteran Richard Edmonds, who recently rejoined the National Front without leaving the BNP, where he was for a while on Griffin's national advisory committee.

British nazis have often travelled to Europe and the USA to link up with likeminded people, as Searchlight has often reported. It is not impossible that some have had contact with the NSU.

Germany's Prime Minister Angela Merkel described the NSU's crimes as "something inconceivable" and a "disgrace and mortifying for Germany", promising to "do everything we can to get to the bottom of this". She could start by sacking some of her senior intelligence officers and bringing some of them before the courts for this murderous collusion.

Readers can follow developments in Der Spiegel's English website,, which has some of the best coverage of this story. The Huffington Post ( and Bloomberg ( are also useful sources.

Re: A New Europe: Anti-Semitism, Islamophobia, Nation-State

PostPosted: Thu Sep 05, 2013 9:09 am
by American Dream ... 3-04092013

Stop the EDL in Tower Hamlets - Part II (7 September, 2013)


The English Defence League have announced plans to march to Altab Ali Park* for a rally on 7th September. This is clearly an arrogant and incendiary declaration even by their own (sub) standards. London Anti-fascists, part of The Anti-Fascist Network are calling on every militant anti-fascist to join them on the streets on Saturday with the good people of Tower Hamlets in ensuring that the EDL do not set foot in the area and are effectively opposed!

As part of the build up to the Tower Hamlets demo, over 250 people attended London Anti-Fascists’ event ‘Resistance to fascism and racism in the East End’ on Saturday. Thousands of leaflets have been distributed, as anti-fascists move to mobilise the local community, as well as being joined by anti-fascists from across the country.

The Anti-Fascist Network is calling for all anti-fascists to gather at Altab Ali Park, Whitechapel High Street at 11am. Look for the Anti-fascist Network flags and banners, and be ready to react to the EDL and Police plans on the day.

London Anti-fasicsts have issued guidance and advice for those planning to attend the demo. For updates on the day, follow @THStopEDL on Twitter.

*The park is named for Altab Ali, a young Bengali textile worker who was stabbed to death in an unprovoked attack in 1978 and whose murder inspired a mass movement against racism, which eventually kicked the National Front out of the area.

Re: A New Europe: Anti-Semitism, Islamophobia, Nation-State

PostPosted: Thu Sep 05, 2013 11:48 am
by bluenoseclaret
Who Are The English Defence League?..By Brit Dee

With the English Defence League’s leader Stephen Lennon languishing in a Norfolk prison, having been sentenced in January to 10 months (five in jail, five on license) for using a friend’s passport to enter the US, now is a very good time to ask: who exactly are the EDL? Where did they come from? Are they really an organic, grassroots street movement dedicated, as they continually claim, to peaceful opposition to extremist Islam in Britain? Is Lennon calling all the shots, or is he taking orders from elsewhere?

Lennon and the Zionists

The question of image and reality is especially relevant following information that came to light at the end of Lennon’s recent court case. During sentencing Judge Alastair McCreath intriguingly revealed that the name on Lennon’s passport is actually “Paul Harris” [1]. Lennon appears to be a man of many names – he is also known as “Stephen Yaxley-Lennon”, as well as using the pseudonym “Tommy Robinson”. If we cannot be sure of his real name, we do at least know that he has some very interesting connections.

Pamela Geller and Robert SpencerLennon’s arrest followed his illegal entry into the US last September to attend a conference organised by notorious Islam-hating Zionists Pamela Geller and Robert Spencer, whose “anti-Jihadist” organisation Stop Islamization of Our Nation –SION! – he is a board member.


Lennon’s attendance at a Zionist-organised conference should come as no surprise, because the English Defence League have openly pledged loyalty to Israel. In an article posted on the EDL website and published on Geller’s ‘Atlas Shrugs’ blog in June 2011 [2], Lennon made his devotion to the Jewish state perfectly clear:

“One of the fundamental beliefs that this movement was built on was its support for Israel’s right to defend itself. In our first demonstrations, we went to Birmingham, and we flew the flag of Israel, the Star of David. In the first public speech I ever gave, I wore the Star of David in Leeds. The reason for this is because Israel is a shining star of democracy. If Israel falls, we all fall.”

A ‘politically correct’ nationalist movement

The EDL coalesced out of small groups connected to Luton’s football gangs, and Lennon’s peculiar statement seemed highly incongruous. The ignorant football thugs amongst the EDL’s rank and file had quite likely never given Israel a second thought – defending England from “Muslamic” terrorists was their primary concern. Why was a foreign flag being flown alongside St. George’s cross at rallies?

Since when had defending England meant championing diversity and multiculturalism? The EDL website hosted images of a multiracial organisation, its leaders made a point of stressing the movement’s diversity and support for minorities who were not Muslim, and the group has at various times operated a Pakistani Christian Division, Jewish Division, Sikh Division, Disabled Division, and even a LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender) Division [3]. This image of a liberal, open-minded EDL jarred with reality, as many of its members were actually hostile towards ethnic minorities.

It seemed almost as if the EDL had an astute public relations department, working hard to make the movement seem less offensive in the eyes of the public.

Alan Lake, wealthy mastermind behind the EDL

The man responsible for the direction of the EDL was “Alan Lake” – real name, Alan Ayling. Ayling, a wealthy businessman and rabid anti-Muslim with close links to SION’s Geller and Spencer, formed the EDL with the express intention of using them as a puppet army, to physically confront Muslims on the streets.

Ayling spelt out his agenda during a speech at a seminar on Islamisation in Malmö, Sweden, on September 6th 2009, where he openly admitted to using “the physical groups”, the football lads, to bulk up – in terms of both size and muscle – anti-Muslim protests [4].

He made his intentions equally clear in a Guardian article that same month:

“We are catching a baby at the start of gestation…We have a problem with numbers. We have an army of bloggers [in the far-right] but that’s not going to get things done…Football fans…are a hoi polloi that gets off their backsides and travels to a city and they are available before and after matches.”

The founding meeting of the EDL even took place in Ayling’s expensive London flat; he is accurately described when called the group’s financier and strategist.

Words of violence, and defence of terror

The EDL claim to support peaceful opposition to Islam, yet Ayling’s language has been anything but peaceful. Writing on his 4Freedoms website in May 2010, he casually talked about the torture and execution of alleged pro-Muslim British political and religious leaders, including the Archbishop of Canterbury, David Cameron, and Nick Clegg. Referring to the Islamic enclaves that he believes will exist in Britain in 20 or 30 years time, Ayling wrote that by [5]:

“forcing these liberal twits into those enclaves, we will be sending them to their death at worst, and at best they and their families will be subjected to all the depredations, persecution and abuse that non-Muslims worldwide currently ‘enjoy’ in countries like Pakistan… It will be great to see them executed or tortured to death.”

Anders Breivik EDLAnders Behring Breivik, the nationalist terrorist who murdered 77 in Norway on July 22nd 2011, was a keen follower of the anti-Jihadist bloggers featured on Ayling’s website. Breivik praised the EDL in his manifesto and posted on forums linked to the group [6]. Following the Norwegian terror attack Ayling was actually questioned by police, keen to establish whether he might be the English mentor “Richard The Lionhearted” – of whom Breivik speaks admiringly in his sprawling manifesto.

Whilst Ayling was released without charge by police, some continue to allege that he is indeed “Richard The Lionhearted”. Most prominent amongst them is Paul Ray, a disgruntled former EDL member who had been present at the group’s founding meeting in Ayling’s flat. Ray had the misfortune to blog using the name “Lionheart”, and so naturally became a person of interest to the authorities in the aftermath of Oslo and Utoya. He flew voluntarily to Norway from his home on Malta to be interviewed by police, and continues to claim that he was set up by Alan Ayling, who he believes to be the real “Richard” – though his evidence seems entirely circumstantial.

Ayling made sure to publically condemn Breivik’s attack but also described it as “chickens come home to roost” [7]. He wasn’t the only member of the EDL to exploit the Norwegian’s murderous attack.

Ayling’s associates

Ayling’s friend Roberta Moore headed the EDL’s Jewish Division, until she became a little too outspoken about her extremist anti-Muslim, pro-Zionist beliefs. A Brazilian-born Jew, Moore is believed to have been responsible for Stephen Lennon’s appearance at a September 2011 EDL demonstration, from which he’d been banned by police but which he managed to sneak into by absurdly disguising himself as a Rabbi.

Moore’s comments during Breivik’s trial were highly disturbing. In April 2012 she wrote an article published on the Jewish Defence League UK’s blog, in which she described Breivik’s trial as a “kangaroo court” and defended him against charges of child murder by repeating his defence that the victims had actually been young adults attending an “indoctrination camp”, who were “not innocent”. She then stated:

“I hold the same amount of sympathy for…those on Utoya as I would if somebody committed this act on a Hitler Youth camp in the 1940′s, or were they just ‘children’ as well?”

The EDL did not distance themselves from Moore’s outrageous comments, and for some time she continued to run their official Jewish Division Facebook page to spread anti-Muslim hate speech.

Lennon himself appeared on BBC2’s Newsnight to discuss Breivik’s attack, and at the end of the interview Jeremy Paxman did a startled double take when Lennon appeared to make a veiled threat about a similar future attack “on British soil” [8].

Rabbi Nachum Shifren

Rabbi Nachum Shifren is another Zionist with connections to the EDL. Shifren has attended and given speeches at EDL demonstrations [9], once served in the Israeli Defence forces, fitness trained Israeli paratroopers, and was reportedly Rabbi Meir Kahane’s driver [10]. Kahane was the founder of the extremist US-based Jewish Defence League, and he was once described as preaching “a radical form of Jewish nationalism which reflected racism, violence and political extremism” – ironically by the notorious pro-Jewish pressure group the Anti-Defamation League!

The EDL’s puppetmasters and the Neocon agenda

Whilst this article can only scratch the surface of the EDL’s story, it should by now be apparent that the movement is not what it claims to be. Powerful and wealthy strategists, working to realise the goals of Zionist extremists in the US, were fundamental in the development of the organisation.

The rowdy working class men on the streets were brought together, funded and organised to add a physical street-level presence to a war that had previously only been fought by non-working class Zionist keyboard warriors in the anti-Muslim bloggersphere.

It was never an organic, grassroots movement – and it does not represent the best interests of the English or British people.

No doubt many who joined the EDL believed that “the enemy of my enemy is my friend” – but the people pulling the strings of the EDL are anything but friends of the British people. Ayling, Geller, Spencer and co. are responsible for enabling an utterly ruthless, immoral and destructive agenda for global domination – a Neocon plan to “secure the realm”, and the world’s resources, at the expense of whoever might be unfortunate enough to get in their way.

The warmongering American-Israeli Neocons and their associates and successors – the people behind the imperial Project For A New American Century – maintain a powerful influence on US and UK foreign policy. Motivated by the acquisition of even more wealth and power and an unwavering support for Israel, this powerful shadow elite, aided and abetted by their public puppets in government, has over the last decade waged a series of criminal and catastrophic wars.

The invasion of Afghanistan was launched on the premise that it would catch Bin Laden and stop “Al Qaeda” – despite the fact that the US had two decades earlier funded, trained, and armed the very militants that became Al Qaeda under Operation Cyclone.

al qaeda operation cycloneIt’s not within the scope of this article to detail the innumerable ways in which the Anglo-American-Israeli criminal elite has in recent years exploited the threat of Islamic extremism, to advance its imperial agenda. From supporting Jihadists and Osama Bin Laden in 1980s Afghanistan, through 9/11 and the questions of foreknowledge and stand-downs, to contrived underwear bomber patsies and provocateured dupes, to the backing of Islamic terrorists in Libya and Syria; when it comes to Muslim extremists the US and British governments have a long history of manipulation and deceit. Radical Muslims are appointed the enemy so that foreign interventions and invasions can be justified. The EDL perpetuates the myth of the Islamic terrorist threat, without ever mentioning Western Governments’ own ties to those very terrorists. On another level they do not even consider how our aggressive foreign policy of invading Muslim lands and backing ruthless Israel helps feed the extremist mindset in the first place.

In addition to the untold numbers of innocent civilians killed in Afghanistan, many British soldiers have lost their lives. The cost to the British taxpayer, obliged to fund the immoral, baseless and frankly illegal war, has been huge.

The invasion of Iraq was based entirely on lies about weapons of mass destruction. As in Afghanistan strategic control of territory and resources was one of the imperialists’ primary goals, and the removal of strongman Saddam Hussein, a regional threat to Israel, another. The Iraq war has not only murdered countless numbers of innocent civilians, it has killed hundreds of British servicemen and women. And the British people have paid for it all through taxation, compounding the national debt crisis that was brewing and is now here in full force. Today public services are being slashed and the poor and vulnerable are cold and hungry, yet we still manage to find funds for bombing campaigns and covert operations in lands far away from our own.

Gaddafi deathThe attack on Libya and removal of Colonel Gaddafi was similarly manufactured, and entirely without justification. Yet another sovereign nation, once peaceful and stable lies in ruins after our “humanitarian intervention”. The imperial Neocon agenda marched on.

The criminals in power, and the criminals behind those in power, are currently attempting to overthrow the leader of yet another sovereign and formerly stable country – Syria, by hijacking a peaceful protest movement against the Assad regime by backing Islamic terrorists within their ranks and mercenaries from further afield, the kind of extremists we claim to be fighting elsewhere in the world. More taxes to fund more death, to make the already fantastically wealthy and powerful even wealthier and more powerful.

One of their ultimate goals is the removal of the Iranian leadership, and the installing of a pliant puppet government in a country which just happens to be hostile to Israel’s Zionist regime and allied with the former super power of Russia and emerging world power China; this without mentioning their massive reserves of oil and other natural resources.

How many British people will die in World War 3 against Iran’s nuclear-armed and vastly populated allies?

More war is exactly what those pulling the EDL’s strings are enabling – and there’s nothing remotely patriotic about supporting psychopathic imperialism! ... of-israel/


Eddie says:

Interesting article. I notice the EDL get an almighty bug up their arses should a muslim get convicted of a sex crime. But if a ‘native’ gets convicted of the same crime, the EDL are ok with it. Yeah, lets get these clowns into politics.

An another note. I think you’ll find the support for the EDL is more sinister than you think (as if being supported by Israel wasn’t sinister enough). I refer you to the well know interview with the BBC’s Paxman. You know the one where Paxman looked like he was in agony from what he was hearing from the clown in front of him (Lennon or whatever he calls himself).

If you look closely you’ll find it’s actually a staged interview. Paxman keeps his trap shut for long pauses (how often does he do that?) looking like he’s really disturbed, meanwhile the clown from EDL is allowed free airtime to spew his ignorant nonsense. There were some obvious questions that Paxman could have asked but never does. For example.. “.. tell us Mr Lennon/Harris/f’kface I notice that sharia courts cause you a lot of grief, can you tell us when you were last forced to go to one??… what’s that?.. you’ve never met a muslim?.. oh for f’k sake!”

I would think that most Nationalist groups in the U K regard the EDL as a kosher bag of shit!

Re: A New Europe: Anti-Semitism, Islamophobia, Nation-State

PostPosted: Thu Sep 05, 2013 2:19 pm
by Sounder
Thanks bluenoseclaret

It's so charming to see The Zionist and EDL pigs swilling at the same racist trough.

AD, quick put up a dozen pointless propaganda pieces so this material can be buried.

Get to work.

Conspiracy? What conspiracy, its just the global working of capital.

Re: A New Europe: Anti-Semitism, Islamophobia, Nation-State

PostPosted: Thu Sep 05, 2013 2:30 pm
by American Dream
It's rather hard to say what all agenda are being fulfilled by the EDL, really- it wouldn't be surprising to know they had infiltrators from various intelligence agencies on board- maybe from multiple countries?- as well as plenty of bonafide British boneheads pursuing a tricky agenda of, well, Fascism...

Re: A New Europe: Anti-Semitism, Islamophobia, Nation-State

PostPosted: Thu Sep 05, 2013 3:08 pm
by Sounder
AD wrote...
It's rather hard to say what all agenda are being fulfilled by the EDL, really- it wouldn't be surprising to know they had infiltrators from various intelligence agencies on board- maybe from multiple countries?- as well as plenty of bonafide British boneheads pursuing a tricky agenda of, well, Fascism...

Oh I see, Zionist racist hate breeders have nothing to do with all this, it's probably the work of intelligence agency infiltrators, and never mind the Zionist racist shits that sit on the same boards and indeed created their hate breeding organization.

Did you even read the article? Because your reaction does not make sense otherwise.

Re: A New Europe: Anti-Semitism, Islamophobia, Nation-State

PostPosted: Thu Sep 05, 2013 3:23 pm
by American Dream
(The State of Israel runs intelligence agencies, too).

Re: A New Europe: Anti-Semitism, Islamophobia, Nation-State

PostPosted: Thu Sep 05, 2013 4:44 pm
by Sounder
Thanks for taking me off ignore AD, effectively if not actually, for the moment.

AD wrote...
(The State of Israel runs intelligence agencies, too).

Yes but you said infiltrators from various intelligence agencies. They are not various nor are they covert in their infiltration. Whether these Zionist swill are provided through governmental offices or through the money from other ‘independent’ Zionist swill does not really matter as it amounts to organized incitement to hatred either way.

But you are right; the state of Israel runs intelligence agencies.

Re: A New Europe: Anti-Semitism, Islamophobia, Nation-State

PostPosted: Thu Sep 05, 2013 5:23 pm
by American Dream
This has some interesting thoughts on Fascism and Islamophobia, too:

Wednesday, 5 September 2012

Richard Seymour: Breivik’s 21st Century Fascist Manifesto

ImageIntroduction: new model fascism
2083: A European Declaration of Independence is the product of intense disillusionment. Its author, the son of professional parents, a loser on the stock market and a failed businessman, resembles nothing so much as the “exasperated petty bourgeois” identified by Leon Trotsky1 as the seed of Hitlerism. Whence the exasperation of Anders Behring Breivik? By his ‘own’ account2, it arises from the moral and social decline of European nation-states in the post-war era. A family from the 1950s that was able to visit a European city in the 2000s, he maintains, would encounter a landscape of crime, homosexuality and pornography. “Were they able, our 1950s family would head back to the 1950s as fast as they could, with a gripping horror story to tell”. (p 21) The continent has somehow lost its “cultural self-confidence” (Breivik’s definition of nationalism, p 13), leading to an accommodation with Muslim immigrants who will have “demographically overwhelmed” Europe within “a few decades” if “a sufficient level of resistance is not developed”. (p 17)

Breivik’s brief, as he sees it, is to anatomise the causes of Europe’s decline and vulnerability to Muslim takeover, and provide 'patriots' with the information necessary to organise both political and military resistance. 2083 is a patchwork of polemic, autobiography, plagiarised materials, weapons instructions, military strategy, and historical excursions, most of it only loosely fitting together. The resulting text is a manifesto for a peculiarly 21st Century form of fascism. In saying this, I mean not merely that Breivik is advocating a violent rightist putsch, though he is. Long sections deal with the use of weapons of mass destruction such as anthrax and nuclear bombs against “cultural Marxists” and other “Category A and B traitors” (pp 960-73), and the “systematical and organized executions of multiculturalist traitors” (p 1436). Breivik specifies the strategic value of military targets in Europe by reference to their Muslim population, and urges priority assaults on left-wing political meetings, media outlets, Muslim gatherings, and so on. But the attempt to take power through armed attacks on opponents is a classic feature of fascism. What is distinctive here is the particular set of ideological articulations that make this a fascism far more adequate to 21st Century circumstances than the tenets of extant neo-Nazi groups. It reminds us that fascism in the 2000s will not simply be a Third Reich re-enactment.

In making this claim, I have to tread carefully. The great historian of fascism and Vichy France, Robert Paxton, has argued that it is no accident that there is no Fascist Manifesto, as fascism possesses no coherent ideology or philosophical system. Fascists have shared neither assumptions, nor enemies. European fascists were often hostile to Christianity, for example, but this was not true of Franco or Petain. Similarly, while fascists from the northwest and east of Europe directed their most deadly ire against Jews, Mediterranean fascists were far more conspicuous in their hostility to the Left and colonized peoples. At the same time, fascists have rarely elaborated a programme and stuck to it. Mussolini’s 1919 programme promised sweeping social change, from the eight hour day to workers' involvement in industrial management. The 'Twenty-Five Points' of the Nazis in 1920 boasted hostility to all forms of non-artisanal capitalism. In neither case did the programmes prefigure the regimes, both of which involved coalition with conservative elites.3

In general, the core ideas of fascism seem to differ little from those of reactionaries of other stripes, leaving it in doubt whether there can be a specifically fascist credo. Arguably, what is distinctive about fascist ideas is less their substance than the contexts in which they are deployed. Moreover, the historian Dave Renton has pointed out the difficulties arising from attempts to identify a fascist ideational core. These tend to take the statements of fascists about themselves at face value, and as a consequence fail to anticipate the actual conduct of fascists when in power, and ultimately suffer from the same incoherence that fascist ideology itself suffers from.4

Even so, much recent scholarship on fascism has been concerned, as the sociologist Michael Mann put it, to take fascist ideology seriously. Mann describes fascism as a “movement of high ideals”, able to offer seemingly plausible solutions to social problems. To ignore fascist beliefs, says Mann, is to view fascism “from outside”, and thus gain only a partial understanding of it.5 Indeed, taking fascist ideology seriously need not mean treating fascist self-descriptions uncritically. For example, Breivik is by his own account a democrat, and an anti-fascist. Taking this claim seriously entails understanding what it means in his world-view, not accepting it at face value. Therefore, despite some reservations about Mann’s approach6, we shall take his advice and consider in detail the specific articulation of ideas and actions commended by Breivik’s sprawling pronunciamento.

As we will see, the burden of Breivik’s argument involves a recitation of standard reactionary complaints – multiculturalism, Islam, political correctness, leftists and the European Union all conspire to degrade the nation and abridge its sovereignty. What makes these complaints into a fascist diatribe is their specific articulation. The political theorist Ernesto Laclau argued that the character of an ideology is determined less by its specific contents than by its “articulating principle”.

None of the ideas of fascism are distinctive to it – this is why it has been called a “scavenger ideology”, appropriating dis-embedded elements from other ideological traditions. These elements are capable of being appropriated because they possess “certain common nuclei of meaning,” which can be “connotatively linked to diverse ideological-articulatory domains”. Yet, fascism is a distinctive ideology and behaviour. And the “articulating principle” that quilts these heterogeneous elements is precisely that point at which ideology becomes practise: the call for a mass, extra-parliamentary movement of the right to take power through violence against opponents.7 At any rate, this is the approach I will now take in examining each element in Breivik’s doctrine.

Continues at: ... ntury.html

Re: A New Europe: Anti-Semitism, Islamophobia, Nation-State

PostPosted: Thu Sep 05, 2013 5:25 pm
by slimmouse
Sounder » 05 Sep 2013 20:44 wrote:Thanks for taking me off ignore AD, effectively if not actually, for the moment.

AD wrote...
(The State of Israel runs intelligence agencies, too).

Yes but you said infiltrators from various intelligence agencies. They are not various nor are they covert in their infiltration. Whether these Zionist swill are provided through governmental offices or through the money from other ‘independent’ Zionist swill does not really matter as it amounts to organized incitement to hatred either way.

But you are right; the state of Israel runs intelligence agencies.

Hmm. "Zionist swill"

I wonder how Dershowitz and the ADL would interpret such an accurate portrayal?

How about you AD?

Re: A New Europe: Anti-Semitism, Islamophobia, Nation-State

PostPosted: Thu Sep 05, 2013 5:31 pm
by American Dream
Sounder » Thu Sep 05, 2013 3:44 pm wrote:Thanks for taking me off ignore AD, effectively if not actually, for the moment.

AD wrote...
(The State of Israel runs intelligence agencies, too).

Yes but you said infiltrators from various intelligence agencies. They are not various nor are they covert in their infiltration. Whether these Zionist swill are provided through governmental offices or through the money from other ‘independent’ Zionist swill does not really matter as it amounts to organized incitement to hatred either way.

But you are right; the state of Israel runs intelligence agencies.

I think it's important to be clear about what we really know and can prove and what we can't. That said, yes, the ties to racist zionist hawks are overt. While by definition covert ops are hard to prove, I see EDL as such a hot potato that I imagine "useful idiots" will be put to use by those who find them useful and I also believe that grassroots populist Fascism really does exist. So I'm imagining some kind of mix but unsure of all the ingredients.