Tantra-Induced Delusional Syndrome ("TIDS")

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Re: Tantra-Induced Delusional Syndrome ("TIDS")

Postby American Dream » Sat Aug 24, 2013 9:49 am


Making Madness Before America: Saint Peter’s Snow, Psychotomimetics, and the German Experimental Imaginary

Below is the text of a conference paper recently presented at the ‘Tonics, Elixirs and Poisons: Psychoactive Substances in European History and Culture’ Conference (8-9 September 2012) at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, organised by the Antipodean East European Study Group.


Leo Perutz’s novel Saint Peter’s Snow (1933) offers a fascinating representation of the ideas circulating in the 1930s about the possible chemical synthesisation of such “vegetable substances” as mescaline and psilocybin in Germany and central Europe. Promptly banned by the Nazi government upon its publication, Perutz’s text revolves around a “secret experiment to make a mind-altering drug from a white mildew occurring on wheat—a mildew called Saint Peter’s Snow.” By considering Perutz’s dystopic novel in combination with the radically revisionist claims of Willis Harmann about the German origins of LSD and historical studies of state-run psychological experiments, this essay will examine the literary and historical representations of the “psychotomimetics” in the period immediately before, during and after their first appearance in Central Europe.



Humphry Osmond, the English psychiatrist responsible for the introduction of LSD to the writer and intellectual Aldous Huxley in 1953, in Los Angeles, California, is also responsible for the invention of the term ‘psychedelic’, which he proposed to Huxley as a descriptor for the totality of the experience brought about my mescaline or LSD and in response to Huxley’s earlier suggestion of the almost completely unrepeated ‘phanerothyme’.[1] In the title of his first comprehensive review of hallucinogens, presented to the New York Academy of Science in 1957, however, Osmond describes the hallucinogens mescaline and LSD not as ‘psychedelic’, but as ‘psychotomimetic agents’—that is, as agents which imitate psychosis—offering a sense not only of the psychiatric nomenclature of the time but also the view held by those in the mainstream of the chemical and mind sciences about these drugs: that they generated a ‘model psychosis’ or a model of schizophrenia. Osmond, however, had a different idea about the psychotherapeutic potential of these drugs, and so, as he writes:

If mimicking mental illness were the main characteristic of these agents, “psychotomimetics” would indeed be a suitable generic term. It is true that they do so, but they do much more. Why are we always preoccupied with the pathological, the negative? Is health only the lack of sickness? Is good merely the absence of evil? Is pathology the only yardstick? Must we ape Freud’s gloomier moods that persuaded him that a happy man is a self-deceiver evading the heartache for which there is no anodyne? Is not a child infinitely potential rather than polymorphously perverse?[2]

Osmond’s remarks evoke the sense of wonder about these substances, and the positive purposes to which he and his colleagues believed they could be put. Prior to Osmond’s experiments with mescaline and LSD of the 1950s in Saskatchewan, Canada, however, the former substance had quite clearly been understood by science as a psychosis-imitator; mescaline was looked upon with considerably less optimism than as a means of enlightening psychotherapy, and had been imagined to be useful for far more sinister purposes than Osmond’s humanistic efforts, with Abram Hoffer, to improve the mental life conditions of those with schizophrenia and other psychotic syndromes.[3]

In fact, the potential for mescaline to radically bring about alterations in the user’s mind had been other state interests had occurred to scientists as early as the 1940s in Germany, where, in the Dachau concentration camp, the SS had been investigating the potential of mescaline as an interrogation tool to defeat the mental resistance of those under scrutiny. While individuals had used mescaline for centuries [check] for self- exploration and mystical purposes, the origin of clinical human experimentation with the hallucinogens, as with a range of other scientific interrogation and psychological science, lies in Nazi Germany.

While there is little known about, and few historical records illuminating the attitudes or knowledge held by Germans at the beginning of the Nazi rule about the hallucinogens, Leo Perutz’s novel, Saint Peter’s Snow (Le Petri Schnee), first published in 1933, offers a fascinating representation of the kinds of ideas developing at the time about the possible chemical synthesisation of such “vegetable substances” as mescaline and psilocybin (as it was later to be identified) in Germany and in central Europe. Promptly banned or ‘boycotted’ by the Nazi government after its publication, Perutz’s text revolves around a “secret experiment to make a mind-altering drug from a white mildew occurring on wheat—a mildew called Saint Peter’s Snow.”[4] It is told from the point of view of Dr. George Amberg who, in hospital, apparently recovering from an automobile accident, compares the official account of his mishap, written on the doctor’s report, with a range of disturbing memories about his recent past, which he discloses as the narrator. (This literary device whereby the hero either generates or recollects memories the veracity of which is uncertain while in a coma was of course later adopted in the film adaptation of L. Frank Baum’s The Wizard of Oz.[5]) The unverifiability of Amberg’s story is emblematic of the novelty and power of the mind-altering drug which Amberg begins to remember as having been the subject of a plan to reintroduce religious fervour and to revive the Holy Roman Empire in Germany through the development of a synthetic chemical by Baron von Malchin. As Robert Diantonio suggests, Amberg, as if experiencing a disorienting flashback after having used a hallucinogenic substance, “seems trapped among many different realities.”[6]

Despite his evident talent, the historical significance of his works, and the praise he offered of his writing by the likes of Borges, little to no academic scholarship is written in English on the Perutz’s novels. In Le Figaro, for instance, one reviewer remarked that it was “no wonder Borges loved Perutz; they both liked to encapsulate history within a fable.”[7] Similarly, as Franz Rottensteiner writes, Petutz’s “books skillfully merge authentic historic detail with visionary events, so that the reader is often uncertain where reality fades into fantasy. His heroes are frequently the victims of an implacable destiny, almost in the style of a Greek tragedy.”[8]Perutz’s fascination with history and fables explains the uncanny sense in which the story of Saint Peter’s Snow is resonant with familiar archetypes and yet is an original work of contemporary fiction offering a critique of modern science. To begin with, the so-called Saint Peter’s snow, the white mildew which occurs on wheat which gives the novel its name and which is the organic precursor to the synethetic psychoactive drug being developed by baron von Malchin (much to the puzzlement and curiosity of Georg Amberg, the protagonist doctor of the novel) is a clear reference to ergot (claviceps purpurea (Fr.)), a fungal growth and a parasite on rye as well as barley, wheat and on certain wild grasses.[9]

Before Perutz’s day, the folkloric history of ergot pervaded Germany, and, as Albert Hoffman, the 1943 discoverer of LSD points out, there “seem to be more variants” in names and nicknames for ergot of rye in German “than in other languages: Mutterkorn,Rockenmutter, Afterkorn, Todtenkorn and many others.”[10] As Hoffman writes:

In German folklore there was a belief that, when the corn waived in the wind, the corn mother (a demon) was passing through the field; her children were the rye wolves (ergot). In our context we observe that [the name] Tollkorn (“mad grain”) point[s] to a knowledge of the psychotropic effects of ergot [and] an intimate knowledge of its properties, at least among herbalists, deeply rooted in European traditions.[11]

Calling not only upon the folkloric fabulae which had accreted around the psychotropic effects of rye in Germany, but also upon the name sometimes given to large outbreaks of ergotism in Europe in the Middle Ages (caused by the eating of bread contaminated by rye), namely ignis sacre (“holy fire”) often called “St Anthony’s fire”, Perutz’s illustration of the fictional chemical, Saint Peter’s Snow, evokes the potential power of such mind-changing drugs to affect societies and their relation with ideology. At one stage of the novel, the wealthy baron, who for the ambiguous although seemingly well-meaning reason of reintroducing religious fervour to the masses, has set about developing the psychochemical so as to, reveals his intentions for having determined to invent the drug by quoting Amberg’s (the protagonist’s) late father, a gifted scientist:

The starting point was something your father said. ‘What we call the fervour and ecstasy of faith’, he said to me in this room, sitting at this table, ‘whether as an individual phenomenon or as a group phenomenon, nearly always presents the clinical picture of a state of excitation produced by a hallucinogenic drugs. By what hallucinogenic drugs produces this effect? None is known to science.’ (88-9)

Not believing that his father would have used such “blasphemy”, Amberg dismisses the baron and his the idea that religious experience could be occasioned psychochemically.

Later, the baron explains that having “made no progress” with the “scientific works of Greek and Latin authors”, he then turned to “the religious and philosophical writings of antiquity”, and then to other histories, from which he learned about a “wheat disease” of “early centuries” and which “was known by a different name wherever it appeared.” (93) As the baron then states:

In Spain it was called Mary Magdalene’s Plait, in Alsace it was known as Poor Soul’s Dew. In Adam of Cremona’s Physician’s Book it was called Misericord Seed, and in the Alps it was called St Peter’s Snow. In the St Gallen area it was known as the Mendicant Friar, and in northern Bohemia as St John’s Rot. Here in Westphalia, where it appeared especially often, the peasant’s called it Our Lady’s Fire. (93-4)

The religious connotations of the names given to ergotism, although real in the case of St Anthony’s Fire and while mostly fictitious in the case of the Baron’s list, suggest the sense in which excitation of the senses by the effects of ergot had been always mythically tethered to an influence or interaction with nature that was divine, saintly, and even miraculous. More than this, however, the baron’s recognition of the influence of ergot and grain upon state and national religion and ideology is crucial for readers of Perutz’s novel; as the baron at one stage notes, the “Chinese have no religious ideas, only a kind of philosophy” since in “the Middle Kingdom no grain as been cultivated for thousands of years. Only rice.” (95))

The link between the nation-state, ideology, religion and drugs is of particular interest to Perutz, who understood the potential of each of these social influences to produce mass hysteria in society. And ultimately, Perutz’s experience and his concerns about the rise of ideological anti-semitism meant that he could no longer live in Germany. As Perutz’s biographer, Hans Herald-Müller writes

The establishment of the National Socialist dictatorship in Germany had drastic consequences for Perutz [and the] deliberate creation of mass hysteria plays an important role in his contemporary novel Saint Peter’s Snow. By the beginning of 1933, distribution of the book in Germany had shrunk to a trickle. Soon afterwards, all the novels of this Jewish author were boycotted. When Nazi troops marched into Vienna on 13 March 1938, he knew that he had no choice but to emigrate.[12]

In addition to the novel’s allusions to the mass hysteria, however, Saint Peter’s Snow also offers an instructive representation of individual hysteria in the form of Dr. Amberg’s disoriented and tendentious narrative. Indeed, Amberg’s disorientation not only prefigures and reflects Perutz’s own desubjectivised and disempowered position as a jew in an increasingly anti-Semitic dictatorship, but also the negative effects of a psychosis-inducing drug. Thus, Dr. Amberg, as he recalls his story, disarmed in a hospital bed, is never quite aware whether the story he recalls is real or unreal; whether it all an elaborate hoax on which his medical staff are ‘in’. In a case of doctor’s word against doctor’s mind, the medical superintendent reminds Amberg of the incident by which he came to be hospitalized thus:

“No,” said the medical superintendent. “You never reached the station. You walked straight into a car and were knocked down. The base of the skull was broken and there was brain haemorrhage, and that was the state you were in when you were brought here…but now you’re out of danger.”

I tried to read his face. He could not have seriously meant what he said, it was absurd.


“I beg your pardon,” I said quite diffidently, “but the head wound is the result of a blow with a blunt instrument. It was done with a flail.”

Amberg resigns himself to the fact that he will not convince others of his memory of the baron and the plot to synthesise the mind- (and society-) altering psychochemical, but in the exchange that follows, the superintendent puzzledly observes that flails have not been used in Germany to thresh crops since the invention of machinery; that is, not for over a “hundred” years (8). Here, Perutz’s reminder to readers of the improbability of flailing in contemporary Germany also suggests the improbability of Amberg’s narrative; more than this, however, it signals the ahistoricality of Amberg’s tale, or—if it is to be regarded as at all chronometrically stable—it serves as an allusion to the ancientness and thus the ‘superstitiousness’ of Amberg’s own ideas, as well as the anteriority of ergotism, whose “severity had decreased as improved milling techniques and other agricultural innovations” which had, by the late nineteenth century, lessened the threat”[13] to the public of, and the familiarity of doctors with the condition.

Together with a rich folkloric history, investigations into ergot alkaloids were an energetically studied subject in the ‘formal’ sciences throughout Europe, both before and after 1933, when Perutz published Saint Peter’s Snow. The pharmacological history of ergot and ergotamine alkaloid isolation has been characterized as “the story of the unexpected,”[14] and even as a “history of the unexpected.”[15] Before 1933, ergotamine—an ergot alkaloid derivative, present in the sclerotia of the Claviceps purpurea fungus—had been isolated in its crystalline form by Arthur Stoll in 1918 at Sandoz laboratories, not far from Germany and Dachau (where the Dachau concentration camp was later to be established by the Nazi government), and Stoll patented the alkaloid. In 1917, Sandoz had granted Stoll, then a young Swiss chemist and a student of the Jewish German organic chemist Richard Willstätter,[16] the opportunity of setting up a laboratory to develop new bioactive drugs.[17] But the goal of isolating these alkaloids had been underway for more than fifty years prior to Stoll’s discovery, with Charles Tanret obtaining ergotinine cristalisee in 1875, and the Swiss pharmacist F. Kraft having, among discovering many other ergotamine alkaloids, extracted a fraction composed mainly of the ergotoxine group alkaloids, which he named ‘hydroergotonine’ in 1906.[18] The ergotoxine group (so-called hydroergotonine) and ergotamine found medical use in the treatment of severe migraine, although because these drugs had a tendency to produce effects on blood-vessels the same as those which gave rise to ergotism, they have largely been replaced by different ergot alkaloids and non-ergot based substances.[19]

To one side of the history of modern ergot alkaloid research, however, sits a narrative based in the occult and mystical traditions, and which may be tied specifically to Jewish religious tradition—interesting and perhaps instructive for an account of Perutz’s Jewish heritage and his individual perspective on the religious potential of the ergot-based psychochemical.[20] As “the grain of the poorest of the poor”, spurred rye was an “ethnic cuisine” very “popular among Jews of Eastern Europeans,”[21] and its consumption throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Eastern Europe had been coincidental with the emergence of a range of religious and mystical movements in that area. As Sharon Packer notes,

Curiously, three major mystical movements of Judaism erupted at the same times and places as these ergot epidemics, while these sects were largely ignored, if not outrightly scorned, in areas free from endemic ergotism…It is possible that the simultaneous occurrence of the mystical movements and ergot epidemics peaks was no coincidence…: Subtle transcendent states can occur in early ergotism…

Such transcendental mental states were regarded as divine interventions, and, for both those who experienced them or who knew of their experience, these divine states “were seen as supernatural events until the 18th century, if not later.”[22] Furthermore, as Packer astutely points out, given that there are almost a dozen naturally occurring psychoactive ergot alkaloids, each seasonal crop of claviceps would produce a very different variety of ergots in different and inconsistent combinations and thus the specific symptomatological character of each outbreak of ergotism would have differed, making the source of the toxification difficult to identify with any precision.[23] Consequently, there were two very injurious forms of ignis sacer: in one, the limbs became gangrenous, while in the second form, convulsions accompanied by intense pain, and sometimes with blindness or deafness took place.[24] In relation to our own present moment, interestingly, a biologist from the US has recently hypothesized that the alkaloidal potency of scopolamine and atropine—alkaloids found in the so-called Jimson weed—or datura from the Solanaceae (nightshade) family—may have increased in the last half-century due to the temperature rises and carbon increases in the atmosphere, and has suggested that similar changes may have taken place in respect of the ergot fungus.[25]

Some have argued that the very origins of religion stem from a psychoactive state induced by an alkaloid of ergot rye. As R. Gordon Wasson and his colleagues have argued, in ancient Greece initiates to the Eleusinian mysteries (in which communication with the Gods is said to have taken place) are said to have witnessed “a vision that made all previous seeing seem like blindness” after drinking the kykeon, a potion prepared from weeds which it has been demonstrated were likely to have been a parasitized species of the claviceps,Claviceps paspali.[26] Similiarly, as Packer asserts, the invention of the printing press in around 1100 represents an “ironic twist of technology” since, while this “made mystical texts” (such as “the Zohar—the compendium of Jewish Mystical writings” which became “the first Hebrew best-seller”)—readily “available to the masses,” ergot experiences had fuelled the “demand for mystical materials,” and “the very existence of such a pro-mystical milieu would establish the psychological expectations that are so critical to sculpting the exact phenomenology of the ergot experience.”[27] As Packer’s language suggests, here mysticism becomes an elaborate phenomenology of ergotism whose potential as a political and social-reformist ideology—as is well known to the baron in Saint Peter’s Snow—is seemingly limitless.

In a curious connection, Willis Harman, a senior social scientist at the Stanford Research Institute known as SRI International, and the initiator of the institute’s futures research program (and later the president of the Institute of Noetic Sciences), suggested, in an interview on ABC radio in 1977, that the origins of LSD began with an esoteric or mystical movement specifically following the twentieth century mystic Rudolf Steiner.[28] As Harman explains, the story of LSD “really starts” in “1935 with a group of followers of [this] German mystic [and] members of this group set out very deliberately to synthesise chemicals which were like the natural vegetable substances which they were well aware had been used in all the world’s major religious traditions down through the centuries.” As Harman continues, “By 1938 they had synthesized psilocybin, LSD and about thirty other drugs.”[29] Harman thus suggests that LSD had been deliberately synthesized for its connection to religiosity, and at least five years before our history records say that the substance was first administered to a human (by Hofffman to himself).[30] More extraordinarily, Harmann’s remarks directly make the claim that psilocybin had been identified and isolated at least twenty years before the time on record in all of the histories of psilocybin about the first identification, isolation and chemical synthesis of this alkaloid, by Albert Hoffman and his colleagues in 1958, and at least seventeen years before the first western study of the use of magic mushrooms by R. Gordon Wasson in 1955.[31] Harmann’s claims are not supported by any written evidence, so it would be irresponsible to speculate too long on the possibility that either LSD or psilocybin were developed chemically before the historically confirmed dates or to credit this proposition with having a basis in fact. It would perhaps be better to take Harmann’s claim as an embellished version of the more likely and better supported claim that there did exist some specific knowledge before the 1930s of the potential uses of, and of the methods by which certain ergot-based compounds were capable of generating hallucinatory or ecstatic altered mind-states, and that of this experimental imaginary in Europe, Perutz’s novel provides some evidence. However, that Harmann designates 1938, the year on which Hoffman had first synthesized LSD, as the date by which this “group of followers” had synthesized these so-called vegetable substances, seems to suggest that Harmann means to include Hoffman—and possibly the initiative begun by Arthur Stoll, the director of the pharmaceutical department at Sandoz, to isolate psychoactive constituents from a range of medicinal plants—as part of this project of the “group of followers of Rudolf Stein.”

Whether as members of Steiner’s anthoposophy movement, as unwitting auxillaries or servants of its cause, or as an assemblage of straightforward chemists altogether unrelated to anthroposophy, it is notable that the mission set by Arthur Stoll bears a striking resemblance to the mission that Harmann attributes to the this group of followers. As Albert Hoffman observes, in his biography and history of his discovery of LSD:

In Stoll’s laboratory I found employment that completely agreed with me as a research chemist. The objective that Professor Stoll had set for his pharmaceutical-chemical research laboratories was to isolate the active principles (i.e., the effective constituents) of known medicinal plants to produce pure specimens of these substances. This is particularly important in the case of medicinal plants whose active principles are unstable, or whose potency is subject to great variation, which makes an exact dosage difficult. But if the active principle is available in pure form, it becomes possible to manufacture a stable pharmaceutical preparation, exactly quantifiable by weight. With this in mind, Professor Stoll had elected to study plant substances of recognized value such as the substances from foxglove (Digitalis), Mediterranean squill (Scilla maritima), and ergot of rye (Claviceps purpurea or Secale cornutum), which, owing to their instability and uncertain dosage, nevertheless, had been little used in medicine.

Given the link between Hoffman’s description and Harmann’s characterisation of the mission of the Steiner-followers, it is possible that Harman’s claim may be read simply as a dramatized version of the actual history in which the role of mysticism and folklore in the context of the development and discovery of these drugs is emphasized—either for effect or so as to frame, but not properly make, an argument about the extent to which such mystical beliefs were actually motivating factors to people, such as Arthur Stoll, who were involved in the direction of such psychopharmacological research and drug discovery programs, possibly even at political and policy levels.

As with ergot rye and the psylocibe mushrooms, the hallucinations and other mind-alterations brought about by the peyote cactus (and other cacti) and the psychoactive alkaloid of these plants, mescaline, had been known to traditional cultures: for instance, to the Native Indians in Mexico, who have used the peyote cactus for over 3,000 years.[32] The discovery and chemical synthesis of the phenythaline mescaline, however, predated the discovery of a hallucinogenic ergoline-tryptamine LSD and tryptamine psilocybin by a few decades, having been first isolated and identified by the German chemist Arthur Heffter in 1897 and having its first chemical synthesisation in 1918.[33] Notwithstanding the increasing regulation of opiates under the Harrison Narcotic Tax Act of 1914, clinical research on human subjects with mescaline and peyote began at around the same time in the US and in Europe: in 1927, the German physician Kurt Beringer published a description of his mescaline studies in research subjects and, only a year later, Dr Kluver from the University of Chicago published the first scientific monograph in English on mescaline and perception.[34]

It was not until the 1940s, however, that mescaline was systematically studied on involuntary and sometimes-unknowing human subjects by Nazi scientists at the Dachau Concentration Camp, which, incidentally, was located only about 200 miles from the Sandoz laboratories in Basel where Hoffman first synthesized and used LSD within the same decade.[35] As Alfred McCoy suggests, the “Nazis’ use of human subjects … shattered long-standing clinical restraints” including unprecedented breaches by medical doctors of the Hippocratic oath, however, the results of these experiments were later to intrigue and garner the respect from scientists in the US.[36] In this sense, the experiments in Dachau initiated the intentional making of madness that would follow in the 1950s and 1960s in the US by the CIA under the MK-Ultra or ‘Mind Kontrol Ultra’ program. Directly inspired by and curious about the initial results of the Nazi experiments in Dachau and the overriding investigation question of these experiments—Can the human mind come under the control of an interrogator?— the CIA would later initiate its own experiments on unwitting subjects with LSD and by inflicting other forms of psychological torture in a multifaceted project to build a science of coercion and to investigate weapons of “mass persuasion and individual interrogation” whose costs, as McCoy points out, “reached, at peak, a billion dollars a year.”[37]

The history of the circumstances in which the mescaline experiments on humans in Dachau took place is, however, seemingly mostly incomplete. What is known about these experiments is perhaps most helpfully conveyed by a 1945 technical report of the US Naval Technical Mission, kept in the Harvard Medical Library, which was composed for the purpose of reporting to the US military and intelligence agencies and the Department of Defense on the Nazi experiments and the potential of mescaline’s effectiveness as an interrogation agent.[38] Nevertheless, this report indicated that mescaline was at best inconclusive as an adjunct to interrogation and at worst virtually ineffectual. As Lee and Shlain note:

The navy became interested in mescaline as an interrogation agent when American investigators learned of mind control experiments carried out by Nazi doctors at the Dachau concentration camp during World War II. After administering the hallucinogen to thirty prisoners, the Nazis concluded that it was “impossible to impose one’s will on another person as in hypnosis even when the strongest dose of mescaline had been given.” But the drug still afforded certain advantages to SS interrogators, who were consistently able to draw “even the most intimate secrets from the [subject] when questions were cleverly put.” Not surprisingly, sentiments of hatred and revenge were exposed in every case.[39]

The Naval Technical Mission’s report was probably based on the cache of documents and data that was found, remarkably, in Heinrich Himmler’s cave depository of SS materials in Hallein, Germany by the Joint Intelligence Objectives search teams. The documents had originally been reviewed at the Seventh Army Documents Centre by Dr Leo Alexander, who, in 1945, compiled his own report (‘The Alexander Report’) based on these documents and his data findings in respect of the experiments at Dachau as the psychiatrist involved in offering advice to those adjudicating the Nazi doctors at the Nuremberg Trial.[40]

Even in view of the reprehensible and inhumane methods and the racist and fascist ideology in whose name it proceeded, it cannot be denied the Nazi’s medical science program made a number of significant psychopharmacological and medical advances during the Third Reich. In the pursuance of improving the “health of the Aryan race,” as Richard Evans notes, for instance, “It was a Nazi epidemiologist who first established the link between smoking and lung cancer, establishing a government agency to combat tobacco consumption in June 1939.”[41]

In 1936, the leader of the Reich’s Physician’s Chamber, Gerhard Wagner had announced the “New German Medicine” which would sideline conventional medicine in favour of a new emphasis on “the healing power of herbs.”[42] Further, as Jonathan Lewy suggests, this new emphasis by the Reich’s physicians chamber may also have developed out of the possibility that the Nazi government, when it withdrew from the League of Nations and adopted a seemingly ‘isolated’ position vis-à-vis the international drug control regime, possibly “had hoped to avoid sanctions prescribed in the 1931 [Conference on the limitation of Manufacturing of Narcotic Drugs] treaty, which would have made it difficult to obtain raw materials for drugs from countries enforcing the treaty.”[43] It is interesting also that, as Lewy notes, the Nazi government did not make it illegal to use or consume any drugs whatsoever in the Third Reich: the Nazi government preserved “the basic tenets” of the Opiumgesetz legislation under which “not a single drug was banned” and presumably relied on the Law against Habitual Criminals, enacted in 1933, to ensure that drug addicts were incarcerated. Although, as Lewy notes, there are no records that a single drug-addicted individual had ever been sent to a Nazi concentration camp; instead, the records demonstrate that the Nazis preferred drug-addicted persons to enter a sanitarium or Heil- und Pflegeanstalt, “which could have been either a regular or a mental hospital.”[44]

Thus it is specifically in respect of the drug discovery initiatives, the larger medical program of Wagner, and the legal ambiguity around the drug policy under the Nazi government, that Harman’s claim about the origin of LSD—as well as the characterization of a drug-induced or involuntary increase in religious fervour visualized in Perutz’s novel—begins to obtain something of a clearer historical significance. During this time in the 1930s, it was the will of the party, as Rudolf Hess, Hitler’s deputy stated, to “discourage the German people from harmful foreign spices and artificial drugs and to switch to the use of natural herbs.”[45] Thus, as Schmid notes, “Through prisoner slave labor, 20 acres of moorland were appropriated in Dacahau [and] the locally grown spices covered almost the entire demand of the Wehrmact and the SS. [There] the prisoners were abused not only as free labor, but also as human guinea pigs … For about 700 Reichsmark, a German pharmaceutical company could buy a camp of people on whom they could then test their drugs.”[46]

One of the most prominent Nazi researchers in this area was Dr Kurt Ploetner, who led the mescaline research at Dachau and by 1944 had been made the SS head of the Institute for Military and Scientific Research.[47] And while, as John Marks points out, these “mescaline tests .. were not nearly so lethal as the others in the “aviation” series [such as the hypothermia experiments] … the drug could still cause grave damage, particularly to anyone who already had some degree of mental instability.” As Marks continues, “The danger was increased by the fact that the mescaline was administered covertly by S.S. men who spiked the prisoners’ drinks. Unlike Dr. Hofmann, the subjects had no idea that a drug was causing their extreme disorientation. Many must have feared they had gone stark mad all on their own.”[48]

As contemporary studies of the hallucinogens have demonstrated, a significant distinction should be drawn between involuntary or unwitting clinical uses of these drugs and those that are knowing and voluntary or consensual due to the unpredictability of the drug’s action, and the fact that reactions are “heavily dependent on the expectations of the user (“set”) and the environment (“setting”) in which the use takes place.”[49] The variability and unpredictability of user reactions was described by those who took part in the Dachau experiments; although so was the potential they saw in mescaline as a truth serum. As Marks notes, Neff, Ploetner’s inmate assistant, stated when asked by American investigators that

the subjects showed a wide variety of reactions….[and] that the drug caused certain people to reveal their “most intimate secrets.” Still, the Germans were not ready to accept mescaline as a substitute for their more physical methods of interrogation. They went on to try hypnosis in combination with the drug, but they apparently never felt confident that they had found a way to assume command of their victim’s mind.

Thus, almost twenty years after the German chemist Karl Beringer had proposed that mescaline generated a ‘model psychosis’, producing a symptomatology similar to that of acute schizophrenia—a proposition of which Nazi scientists such as Ploetner must have been aware—they were deployed in order to determine whether an individual subject was telling the truth.[50] In addition to the cruelty of generating such adverse reactions (largely owing to the setting in which mescaline was given to the prisoners), the non-consensual and unwitting position in which these experiments were undertaken ultimately led to the formulation, by Leo Alexander, of the Nuremberg Code of Scientific Research, which was applied to the Nazi doctors at the Nuremberg Trial, and whose first principle, simply, was that “[r]esearchers must obtain full voluntary consent from all subjects.”[51]


[1] As quoted in Erika Dyck, Psychedelic Psychiatry: LSD from Clinic to Campus (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2008), 2. As Dyck notes, Osmond later confided to his colleague that he did not “relish the possibility, however remote, of finding a small but discreditable niche in literary history as the man who drove Aldous Huxley mad.” (also quoted in Dyck, Psychedelic Psychiatry, 2. It is arguable that by contrast Osmond would today find a similarly small niche in literary history as the man who drove Aldous Huxley to write one of his best-known and most original prose works, The Doors of Perception (1954).

[2] See, for instance, Humphrey Osmond, “A Review of the Clinical Effects of Psychotomimetic Agents,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 66(3), 1957: 418-434.

[3] On this subject, Erika Dyck’s detailed history of Hoffer and Osmond’s pioneering research is indispensable. See Dyck, Psychedelic Psychiatry, 32-52.

[4] As quoted in Leo Perutz, Saint Peter’s Snow, trans. Eric Mosbacher , New York: Arcade Publishing, 1990, book dust-jacket.

[5] See Joseph Switzer, “Saint Peter’s Snow by Leo Perutz,” November 2, 2008, accessed August 10, 2012, http://markswitzer.blogspot.com.au/2008 ... erutz.html.

[6] Robert Diantonio, “Banned By The Nazis,” review of Saint Peter’s Snow, by Leo Perutz, Jerusalem Post, March 29, 1991, 15.

[7] As quoted in Leo Perutz, Saint Peter’s Snow, trans. Eric Mosbacher (New York: Arcade Publishing, 1990), book dust-jacket; and as Robert Diantonio notes, “It is little wonder that writers like Jorge Luis Borges drew inspiration from his inventive novels”: see Robert Diantonio, “Banned By The Nazis,” review ofSaint Peter’s Snow, by Leo Perutz, Jerusalem Post, March 29, 1991, 15.

[8] Franz Rottensteiner, The Fantasy Book: the ghostly, the gothic, the imaginary, the unreal (London: Thames and Hudson, 1978), 144.

[9] Albert Hoffman, “A Challenging Question and My Answer,” in R. Gordon Wasson, Albert Hoffman, Carl A.P. Ruck, The Road to Eleusis: Unveiling the Secret of the Mysteries (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970), 8. Also see: Arnold Burgen, “St Anthony’s Gift,” European Review, 11:1 (2003), 27-35; Sharon Packer, “Jewish Mystical Movements and the European Ergot Epidemics,” The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 35:3 (1998), 22-41; Pieter W.J. van Dongen, Akosua N.J.A. de Groot, “History of ergot alkaloids from ergotism to ergometrine,” European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 60 (1995), 109-116;

[10] While Hoffman first synthesized lysergic acid diethylamide in 1937, the psychoactive effects of the substance were not discovered by him until 1943. See Albert Hoffman, LSD: My Problem Child, [DETAILS].

[11] Ibid.

[12] Hans-Herald Müller, “Prague, Vienna, Tel Aviv-The Life and Work of Leo Perutz (1882-1957),” accessed August 6, 2012, http://www.new-books-in-german.com/featur67.htm.

[13] Packer, “Jewish Mystical Movements and the European Ergot Epidemics,” 230.

[14] Heinz G. Floss, “The Biosynthesis of Ergot Alkaloids (or The Story of the Unexpected)” in Indole and Biogenetically Related Alkaloids, eds. J.D. Phillipson and M.H. Zenk (London: Academic Press, 1980), 249-270; and Anacleto Minghetti and Nicoletta Crespi-Perellino, “The History of Ergot,” in Ergot: The Genus Claviceps, eds. Vladimir Kren and Ladislav Cvak (Switzerland: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1999), 1.

[15] Minghetti and Crespi-Perellino, “The History of Ergot,” 1.

[16] Willstätter was Professor of chemistry at the University of Berlin and the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry. He was the first chemist to determine the structure of chlorophyll and was a recipient of the Nobel prize for Chemistry (1915). Interestingly, in 1924, at the age of fifty-three and in response to increasing anti-Semitism, Willstätter retired, notwithstanding many prestigious offers both “at home and abroad.” See ”Richard Willstätter – Biography”, last accessed 10 Aug 2012, http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/ ... atter.html.

[17] Arthur Stoll, “Ergot—A Treasure House for Drugs,” The Pharmaceutical Journal, 194 (1965), 605-13, cited in Minghetti and Crespi-Perellino, “The History of Ergot,” 2.

[18] Albert Hoffman, ‘Analytik der Mutterkornalkaloide,” in Die Chemie der Mutterkoralkoloide (Stuttgard: Ferdinand Enke, Verlag, 1964), 14-175, cited in Minghetti and Crespi-Perellino, “The History of Ergot,” 2.

[19] Arnold Burgen, “St Anthony’s Fire,” 31. Notably, lysergic acid and other tryptamines such as psylocibin and diemtethyltriptamine (DMT) have been found to have had similarly positive medical effects on approximately half of those who suffer episodically from severe migraines or so-called ‘cluster headaches’: See M. Leone, et. al., “Melatonin versus Placebo in the Prophylaxis of Cluster Headache: A Double-Blind Pilot Study with Parallel Groups,” Cephalalgia 16 (1996), 494-496; DR Nyholt, et. al., “Migraine association and linkage analyses of the human 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT2A) receptor gene,” Cephalalgia 16(1996 ) 463-467.

[20] See Packer, “Jewish Mystical Movements and the European Ergot Epidemics,” 227-41.

[21] Ibid., 227.

[22] Ibid. 227-8.

[23] Ibid., 228.

[24] See Arnold burgen, “St Anthony’s Gift,” European Review, 11:1 (2003), 27-35 (27).

[25] Minda Berbeco, Ye Olde Biowarfare: how climate change is affecting hallucinogens (Part 1),” http://mindaberbeco.scienceblog.com/201 ... ens-part-1, accessed Thursday 23 August 2012.

[26] Packer, “Jewish Mystical Movement and the European Ergot Epidemics,” 231, quoting R.G. Wasson, S Kramrisch, Jonathan Ott and Carl Ruck, Persephone’s quest: Entheogens and the origin of religion, New Haven: Yale University, 1986.

[27] Packer, “Jewish Mystical Movement and the European Ergot Epidemics,” 233.

[28] See Willis Harman, quoted in Peter Fry and Malcolm Long (eds.), Beyond the Mechanical Mind (Based on the radio series ‘…And Something Else is Happening’), Sydney: The Australian Broadcasting Commission, 1977, 101-2.

[29] Ibid., p. 102.

[30] See for instance Albert Hoffman, LSD: My Problem Child,

[31] See Albert Hofmann, Roger Heim, et. al., “Psilocybin, ein psychotroper Wirkstoff aus dem mexikanischen Rauschpilz Psilocybe mexicana Heim [Psilocybin, a psychotropic drug from the Mexican magic mushroom Psilocybe mexicana Heim]” (in German), Experientia 14 (3), 1958: 107–9.

[32] Rosalyn Carson-DeWitt, Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol, & Addictive Behavior, (2nd edition), Durham, North Carolina: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001, 714-715.

[33] Here I deploy the chemical classification proposed by David Nichols, (perhaps the world’s foremost authority on the psychopharmacology LSD) in his invaluable and comprehensive article on hallucinogens; see David E. Nichols, “Hallucinogens,” Pharmacology & Therapeutics 101, 2004, 131-181 (135).

[34] See Heinrich Kluver, Mescal: The Divine Plant and its Psychological Effects, London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co, 1928; and Kurt Beringer, “Der Meskalinrausch (The Mescaline Inebriation),” Monogra, Gesamtgeb, Neurology and Psychiatry, 49, 1927, 1-315 (German); for an analytical history of the various laws that came to regulate the use of psychedelics such as mescaline, see Richard Elliot Doblin, “Regulation of the Medical Use of Psychedelics and Marijuana” (PhD diss., Harvard University, 2000).

[35] John Marks, The Search for the “Manchurian Candidate”: The CIA and Mind Control, New York: Times Books, 1979, 5.

[36] Alfred McCoy, “Science in Dachau’s Shadow: Herb, Beecher, and the development of CIA Psychological Torture and Modern Medical Ethics,” Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 45(4), 2007, 401-417 (403).

[37] Ibid. 402, citing Christopher Simpson, Science of Coercion: Communication Research and Psychological Warfare 1945-60, New York: Oxford University Press, 1994, 9.

[38] See Simpson, Science of Coercion: Communication Research and Psychological Warfare 1945-60, 4, 25-30, 127-132, quoted in McCoy, “Science in Dachau’s Shadow”, 403.

[39] Martin A. Lee and Bruce Shlain, Acid Dreams, New York: Grove Press, 1985, 6-7. The report to which Lee and Schlain refer is the ‘German Aviation Medical Research At the Dachau Concentration Camp’, Technical Report No. 331–45, U.S. Naval Technical Mission in Europe, October 1945, a copy of which resides in the Harvard Medical Library in the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine.

[40] Robert Pozos has included in his article on the Nazi’s hypothermia experiments at Dachau an attachment which reproduces the chronology of Alexander’s discovery process of the Dachau documents: see Robert Pozos, “Nazi Hypothermia Research: Should the Data Be Used?”, in Milirary Medical Ethics (Volume 2), Washington: Office of the Surgeon General and the Borden Institute, 437-461, accessed 28 August 2012, http://www.bordeninstitute.army.mil/pub ... sVol2.html. (This chronology originally appeared in Leo Alexander, The Treatment of Shock From Prolonged Exposure to Cold Especially in Water, Washington DC: Office of Publication Board, Department of Commerce, 1946, Report #250.) Also see Leo Alexander, “War Crimes and their Motivation: The Socio-Psychological Structure of the SS and the Criminalization of a Society,” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 39:3, 1948, 298-326; Leo Alexander, “Sociopsychologic Structure of the SS: Psychiatric Report of the Nuremburg Trials for War Crimes,” Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 59:5, 1948, 622-634.

[41] Richard J. Evans, The Third Reich in Power, New York: Penguin Books, 2007, 319, quoted in Daniel Rhodes, “An Anarchist Psychotherapy: Ecopsychology and a Pedagogy of Life,” (PhD diss., University of North Carolina, 2008).

[42] See Hans Schmid, “Psychopathen, Psychiater und Psychonauten (Teil 1: “Besondere Verhörmethoden” im Kalten Krieg) [Psychopaths, psychiatrists and psychopaths (Part 1: Specific Interrogation techniques of the Cold War],” (German) Telepolis, 8 August 2009, accessed 27 August 2012.http://www.heise.de/tp/artikel/30/30803/1.html, my translation.

[43] Jonathan Lewy, “The Drug Policy of the Third Reich,” Social History of Alcohol and Drugs, 22:2, 2008, 157.

[44] Ibid. 158.

[45] Scmid, “Psychopathen, Psychiater und Psychonauten,” Telepolis, 2009.

[46] Ibid.

[47] Ibid., Also see Werner Pieper, Nazis On Speed 1:Drogen im 3. Reich, Löhrbach : Pieper & The Grüne Kraft, 2002. Relying on entries from Wolfram Sievers’ diaries and Nuremberg testimony, Peter Levenda has hypothesized that similar experiments had taken place in Auschwitz under the authority of the Ahnenerbe, the German think tank founded by Heinrich Himmler: See Peter Levenda, Unholy Alliance: A History of Nazi Involvement with the Occult, London: Continuum, 2002, [PAGE].

[48] Marks, The Search for the “Manchurian Candidate”, 5 (fn. 5).

[49] Nichols, “Hallucinogens,” 137.

[50] See Nicholas Langlitz, “Ceci n’est pas une psychose. Toward a Historical Epistemology of Model Psychoses,” Biosocieties, Volume 1, 2006, 159-180 (161); Beringer, “Der Meskalinrausch (The Mescaline Inebriation),”, 35-97 (quoted in Langlitz, “Psychose,”, 162). Levenda has suggested that the purpose of the Dachau mescaline experiments stemmed from the longstanding aim of Himmler, beginning with an assassination attempt on Hitler in 1941, to develop a method by which loyalty and innocence within the Nazi ranks could be tested: Levenda, Unholy Alliance, [PAGE].

[51] Marks, The Search for the “Manchurian Candidate”, 5.
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Re: Tantra-Induced Delusional Syndrome ("TIDS")

Postby American Dream » Sun Aug 25, 2013 8:49 am

LSD, Mind Control, and the Internet: A Chronology

1942: The Cerebral Inhibition Meeting, sponsored by the Josiah Macy Foundation, organized by Frank Fremont-Smith. Gregory Bateson, Margaret Mead, and five others members of the (later) Cybernetics Group attended. Meeting focused on "physiological mechanisms underlying the phenomena of conditioned reflexes and hypnosis as related to the problem of cerebral inhibition."

Long Island Biological Laboratories research project, headed by Harold Abramson, established in part with Macy funds, and with support from the War Department. Abramson was then a Major in the Technical Division, Chemical Warfare service.

1945: Vannever Bush's "memex." Bush directs the work at Los Alamos, where John von Neumann is one of the few scientists with full knowledge of the project's purpose. von Neuman later helps to select the target sites for the bomb-drop in Japan, becomes a critical theorist of the hydrogen bomb, and a principal strategist of MAD, the war-game based cold-war military strategy. He also puts in critical work on the idea of a general-purpose computer, helps to develop ENIAC, and became one of the organizing forces in the Cybernetics Group. A consultant to Standard Oil, IBM, Atomic Energy Commission, Air Force, Los Alamos Labs, and the CIA, among others. Also central to the development of the idea of neural nets, the conceptual forerunner of the internet.

1946: First meeting of the conference on Feedback Mechanisms in Biology and the Social Sciences, later dubbed the Cybernetics group.

1947: Project Chatter--Navy program focused on mescaline and other substances; sparked by reports of amazing results in the Soviet Union with "truth drugs." (Senate Report) This project ended in 1953.

Around this same time, a German researcher named Hoffman synthesizes LSD and experiments with it on himself.

Formation of the RAND corporation by the Air Force, institutionalizing the applications of mathematics to war. John von Neumann becomes a consultant for RAND.

1948: Invention of the first general-purpose computer, in England, by FC Williams (de Landa)

Founding of the World Federation for Mental Health (Mead, Frank, Fremont-Smith, Macy funding, with others): "to some who feared communist world revolution, world mental health seemed a welcome liberal alternative ideology." (Heims)

late 40s: Development of transistor at Bell labs by Shockley

1950: Project Bluebird (later became Project Artichoke): goals were to find out how to condition agency personnel against interrogation, to investigate interrogation techniques, memory enhancement. Office of Scientific Intelligence coordinated with Technical Services division of the CIA; program continued until some time in the late 50s.

1951: Sandoz pharmaceuticals, a Swiss company, agrees to an exclusive contract with the US Government to deliver 100 grams a week of LSD, and not to provide any to communist countries.

1953: Project MKULTRA initiated at the CIA, at the suggestion of Richard Helms, then an assistant director. Project continued at least until 1963; almost all records of the project were destroyed, at the direction of Helms, in 1973, when Senate investigations of the CIA began closing in on this subject. MKULTRA was specifically designed to explore the use of mind- and behavior-altering substances as part of global strategic intelligence warfare. MKULTRA, in its final phase, "involved surreptitious administration [of LSD] to unwitting non-volunteer subjects in normal life settings by undercover officers of the Bureau of Narcotics acting for the CIA." (Senate Report).

Harold Abramson proposes to the CIA an $85,000 study of the effects of LSD on unwitting hospital patients. Funding for this project was funneled through the Macy Foundation.

Scientists working with SOD (CIA) administer LSD to one another; one of these, Dr. Olson, is permanently affected and later jumps out of a window (?) in a Washington DC hotel while under the care of a CIA handler. Harold Abramson is the attending physician. A year later, Abramson publishes the first of several articles dealing with the effects of LSD on Siamese fighting fish. Abramson was an allergist and pediatrician. He was also responsible, during the 1950s, for turning on many of the Cybernetics group to LSD, including Frank Fremont-Smith, head of the Macy foundation and organizer of the LSD conferences (first of these held in 1959).

1954: Lily Pharmaceuticals, with CIA funding, discovers how to synthesize LSD, ending US dependence on foreign supply.

late 50s: Paul Baran at RAND corporation begins to develop a communications system capable of withstanding a nuclear war.

CIA arranges cut-out contracts with The Geschikter Foundation, the Josiah Macy Foundation, and the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, for human-subjects tests on LSD.

The Army Chemical Corps. administers LSD to 1000 American soldiers ("volunteers") who then participated in a series of tests concerning battlefield performance. 95 "volunteers" were subsequently tested to evaluate the potential of LSD as an intelligence weapon. These tests were actually hidden from the CIA.

1959: Gorman annex at Georgetown built with a CIA wing for testing human subjects. Geshickter Foundation is the cutout; Dr. Geshickter's foundation funded LSD experiments on terminally ill patients and on federal prisoners. Geshickter's foundation funneled more than 2 million dollars to other Institutions, many of them universities, from the late 50s until the early 70s.

Macy-funded first international "LSD therapy" conference.

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Re: Tantra-Induced Delusional Syndrome ("TIDS")

Postby American Dream » Sun Aug 25, 2013 11:43 pm

From Monterey Pop to Altamont

The CIA's War Against the Sixties Counter-Culture
by Mae Brussell, November 1976

"I see a great deal of danger in the air. Teenagers are not screaming over pop music anymore, they're screaming for much deeper reasons. We're only serving as a means of giving them an outlet. Pop music is just the superficial tissue. When I'm on the stage I sense that the teenagers are trying to communicate to me, like by telepathy, a message of some urgency. Not about me or my music, but about the world and the way they live. I interpret it as their demonstration against society and it's sick attitudes. Teenagers the world over are weary of being pushed around by half-witted politicians who attempt to dominate their way of thinking and set a code for their living. This is a protest against the system. And I see a lot of trouble coming in the dawn."

Mick Jagger

Everything was beautiful until the insanity began.

The CIA got into the business of altering human behavior in 1947.

"Project Paperclip," an arrangement made by CIA Director Allen Dulles and Richard Helms, brought one thousand Nazi specialists and their families to the United States. They were employed for military and civilian institutions.

Some Nazi doctors were brought to our hospitals and colleges to continue further experimentations on the brain.

American and German scientists, working with the CIA, then the military, started developing every possible method of controlling the mind.

Lysergic Acid Diethylmide, LSD, was discovered at the Sandoz Laboratories, Basel, Switzerland, in 1939 by Albert Hoffman. This LSD was pure. No other ingredients were added.

The U.S. Army got interested in LSD for interrogation purposes in 1950. After May, 1956, until 1975, the U.S. Army Intelligence and the U.S. Chemical Corps "experimented with hallucinogenic drugs."

The CIA and Army spent $26,501,446 "testing" LSD, code name EA 1729, and other chemical agents. Contracts went out to forty-eight different institutions for testing. The CIA was part of these projects. They concealed their participation by contracting to various colleges, hospitals, prisons, mental hospitals, and private foundations.

The LSD I will refer to is the same type of LSD that the CIA used because of the similarity of symptoms between their reports and what happened to musicians or hippies after 1967. We shall be speaking of CIA-LSD, not pure LSD.

Government agents and the ability to cause permanent insanity, identical to schizophrenia, without physician or family knowing what happened to the victim.

"No physical examination of the subject is required prior to the administration of LSD. A physician need not be present. Physicians might be called for the hope they would make a diagnosis of mental-breakdown which would be useful in discrediting the individual who was the subject of CIA interest. Richard Helms, CIA Director, argued that administering drugs, including poisonous LSD, might be on individuals who are unwitting as this is the only realistic method of maintaining the capability considering the intended operational use to influence human behavior as the operational targets will certainly be unwitting."

"Senate Report to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities"
Book I, page 401, April 1976.

When the first reports came out that the CIA could administer a tasteless substance into the beverage of one of their most responsible co-workers, and drive that man into a mental institution, or cause him to jump out of a window to his death, all existing CIA records were destroyed.

Hippies and musicians, previously normal and creative, with families and loved ones identical to Dr. Frank Olson, responded in the same manner as Dr. Olson after their introduction to the same drugs.

Valuable documentation of LSD experiments should not have been in the hands of CIA Director Richard Helms. January 31, 1973, one day before he retired from the CIA, he removed some possible answers as to the fate of persons minds the past ten years.

Helms had been behind all the types of experimentations since 1947.

Mind altering projects went under the code names of Operation Chatter, Operation Bluebird/Artichoke, Operation Mknaomi, Mkultra, and Mkdelta.

By 1963, four years before Monterey Pop, the combined efforts of the CIA's Directorate of Science and Technology, Department of U.S. Army Intelligence, and U.S. Chemical Corps were ready for any covert operations that seemed necessary.

U.S. agents were able to destroy any persons reputation cause by inducing hysteria or excessive emotional responses, temporary or permanent insanity, suggest or encourage suicide, erase memory, invent double or triple personalities inside one mind, prolong lapses of memory, teach and induce racism and hatred against specific groups, cause subjects to obey instructions on the telephone or in person, hypnotically assure no memory remains of the assignments.

The CIA has poison dart guns to kill from far away, tranquilizers for pets so the household or neighborhood is not alerted by entry or exit.

While pure LSD is usually 160 micrograms, the CIA was issuing 1600 micrograms. Some of their LSD was administered to patients at Tulane University who already had wired electrodes in their brain.

Was being crazy an occupational disease of being a musician? Or does this LSD, tested and described in Army documents, explain how a cultural happening that was taking place in 1967-68 could be halted and altered radically?

Janis used to say that her speed experience was induced by a man. He had been the cause of it. He had brought her lower than she had ever been in her life. Her involvement with the young man started in the spring of '65.

He was a very sharp brain and questionable character, engaged in some rather odd activities. Neither his history or his name was his own. He set up a fraudulent international pharmaceutical company in Canada to obtain drugs. He was also a methedrine addict. Janis was an exceptionally vulnerable girl. It had taken Janis about seven months from the time she returned from New York to degenerate into a vegetable, an eighty pound spastic speed-freak.

"Buried Alive, Janis Joplin"
Myra Friedman

Chrissie Shrimpton described how Mick Jagger's mind was affected after he started taking acid. Jagger had a nervous breakdown in the United States, June 1966, some months after he started taking acid. His collapse came just weeks before the start of a new concert tour.

Several friends from America visited Jagger and Chrissie and surreptitiously slipped acid into her drink. She was literally out of her mind. A short while later, Chrissie attempted to kill herself.

"Henry Schneiderman, a sinister American, or Canadian...he had so many passports no one was certain of his origin, brought to Keith Richards home a suitcase...which contained several pounds of heroin, cannabis, pills acid, DMT, every herb and chemical to stab or stroke the mind...along with choice LSD from San Francisco.

Schneiderman had let believe he was really bending the law all over the world. He was on a James Bond thing, the CIA or something."

"Mick Jagger"
Tony Scaduto

Brian Jones had a complete personality change after taking LSD.

Robert Hall, a private detective in Hollywood, was killed by a single bullet on July 22, 1976.

So far, there has been a wire service news blackout on the implications of Hall's murder for obvious reasons. The facts in this case should expose more than the tip of Watergate. What was going on is Los Angeles is part and parcel of the Washington, D.C. scandals.

If one Army report alone exposes that millions of dollars were spent using and testing chemical combinations for operational purposes, then somebody has to be around to distribute the poison.

Managers of seven rock groups, seven different groups, had hired private eye Hall to find out how their stars were getting "stoned."

Turning on or feeling "high" doesn't warrant hiring the professional assistance of a detective. That they were obviously complaining about was that the stars were being altered in such a way that it hampered with their public appearances, credibility, personal lives, and recordings.

Hall's inquiry revealed the drugs were coming from two pharmacies with which he had been employed.

Hall used to own a drug store in Hollywood with co-partner Jack Ginsburg, an admitted pornographer, who was charged with Hall's murder.

Gene LeBell, 44, the other man arrested along with Ginsburg, refereed the Muhammed Ali bout with a Japanese wrestler in July, '76. LeBell, a professional wrestler, is the son of Aileen Eaton, a well known boxing promoter who owns and operates the Olympic Auditorium in Los Angeles.

The reports that Hall concluded for the managers of the rock musicians included the names of two physicians and one dentist as having supplied false prescriptions. The cause of apparent freaking out was centered in a small area of operation.

This information was turned over to the proper authorities for arrests before Hass was murdered. No actions were taken by the police. No arrests have been made.

The same frustrations plagued Robert Hall that bothered Phoenix, Arizona reporter Don Bolles. The higher-ups get police and law protection. The investigators get killed.

Don Bolles and Robert Hall were investigating some of the same people, an actual who's who of the cold war.

Hall's contacts were important because they touched the prime movers of our politics, movies, electoral processes, entertainment, and also our tastes in music and in sounds.

Within moments of Hall's murder, his name was linked with possible murder for hire, kidnapping plans for millionaire financier Robert Vesco's son, gun running to Vesco in Costa Rica, the unsolved stabbing of actor Sal Mineo, blackmail, the lost safe deposit box of Howard Hughes that could contain his original will, Beverly Hills financier Thomas P. Richardson (recently convicted of a $25 million stock fraud), Hollywood's most famous celebrities in drug and sex scandals, exposures of televisions stars and high Washington officials, drug traffic from Los Angeles to the Malibu community, international sports events, the Los Angeles Police Department (one of their former agents is now retired, heads the Police Science Department at L.A. Valley College and supplied the fatal weapon used to kill Hall), Los Angeles Police Department Chief Ed Davis (because of his links to the FBI and CIA) a possible plot to kidnap Bernard Cornfeld (associate of Robert Vesco), past contacts with Mickey Cohen, the long drug addiction of singer Eddie Fisher, contract employment of Hall by Howard Hughes Summa Corp., the two burglaries of Hughes headquarters in Van Nuys and on Romaine Street. The burglary on Romaine Street set off the Glomar Explorer scandal of Hughes fronting the contract for the CIA.

Hall sent his pals to New York. Dr. Max Jacobson, titled Dr. Feelgood, the source of John F. Kennedy's happy time vitamins. Roy B. Loftin, contractor for NASA, Texan, with a long association and friendship for Bobby Baker, Lyndon Johnson's protege, knew Hall.

Investigations into the slain Burbank private detective caused Beverly Hills Police Captain Jack Eggers, on the force seventeen years, to resign.

Hall worked as a double agent for the Beverly Hills Police and the Los Angeles Police.

The relationship between law enforcement, drug traffic, and personalities as varied as politicians and musicians makes it sometimes impossible to get an impartial investigation of certain deaths. What appears as suicide can be murder.

At the time of Hall's murder, his possessions included tranquilizer guns, drug loaded darts that fire gas canisters, electronic bugging equipment of all kinds, and a wide variety of chemical formulas.

The chemicals were possibly a combination from the many tested by the U.S. Government from 1953 to 1963.


July, 1968, the FBI's counterintelligence operations attacked law abiding American individual's and groups.

The stated purpose of these assaults was to disrupt large gatherings, expose and discredit the enemy, and neutralize their selected targets.

Neutralization included killing the leaders,if necessary. Preferably, turn two opposing segments of society against each other to do the dirty work for them.

Remember that among these dangers to the security of the United States were persons with "different lifestyles" and also "apostles of non-violence and racial harmony."

CIA Director Richard Helms warned National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger, Feb. 18, 1969, that their study on "Restless youth" was "extremely sensitive" and "would prove most embarrassing for all concerned if word got out the CIA was involved in domestic matters."

The FBI sent out a list of suggestions on how to achieve their goals. They can all be applied to what happened to musicians, youngsters at folk rock festivals, and hippies along the highway.

Gather information on their immorality. Show them as scurrilous and depraved. Call attention to their habits and living conditions. Explore every possible embarrassment. Send in women and sex, break up marriages. Have members arrested on marijuana charges. Investigate personal conflicts or animosities between them. Send articles to the newspapers showing their depravity. Use narcotics and free sex to entrap. Use misinformation to confuse and disrupt. Get records of their bank accounts. Obtain specimens of handwriting. Provoke target groups into rivalries that may result in death.

"Intelligence Activities and Rights of Americans"
Book II, April 26, 1976
Senate Committee Study with Respect to Intelligence

http://www.maebrussell.com/Mae%20Brusse ... Chaos.html
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Re: Tantra-Induced Delusional Syndrome ("TIDS")

Postby justdrew » Mon Aug 26, 2013 12:12 am

they're calling him "david" not "henry" now. I suppose there are no public photos or documents giving a name.


In February 1967, Mick and Keith were arrested for having cannabis and amphetamines at Richards’ Sussex mansion, Redlands. Richards was jailed for a year and Jagger three months, prompting The Times editorial, ‘Who breaks a butterfly on a wheel?’ On appeal, they were acquitted.

Richards casts light on the mystery of who ‘sold us out’. He blames an American drug dealer at the party, David Schneiderman, ‘who went by the moniker the Acid King’ and was ‘a police plant’.

Richards says Schneiderman ‘was the source of that very high-quality acid of the time...and that’s how Schneiderman got in on the crowd, by providing this super-duper acid. In those innocent days, nobody bothered about the cool guy, the dealer in the corner...in fact, the cool guy was the agent of the constabulary’. After the raid Schneiderman, called Mr X in court, disappeared and has never been heard of since.

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called Mr X in court. Why? because the officials claimed to not know? I'm assuming he wasn't arrested at the time of the raid.

and here we have another spelling entirely...

David Sniderman.

The Mail on Sunday can reveal that Sniderman was a Toronto-born failed actor who told his family and friends he was recruited by British and American intelligence as part of a plot to discredit the group.

After the Redlands bust, he slipped out of Britain and moved to the States where he changed his name to David Jove, and lived in Hollywood, later working as a small-time producer and film-maker.

Maggie Abbott, a Sixties talent agent, met him in Los Angeles in 1983 and became his lover. He told her how he infiltrated the group but said he was now ‘on the run’.

She said: ‘David was a heavy drug user but had a quick wit. He was the perfect choice to infiltrate the Stones.

‘He never showed any remorse for what he did. It was all about how he had been “the victim”. He was a totally selfish person.

‘Mick had been my friend as well as a client and I thought about trying to persuade David to come clean publicly.

‘But he was always armed with a handgun and I feared that if I gave him away, he’d shoot me.’

His identity was confirmed by a scion of a family of American philanthropists,
James Weinstock.

Two years after the Redlands raid, ‘Dave Jove’ married Mr Weinstock’s sister, Lotus, in Britain.

‘They’d come up with some new way to make acid and decided to go to the UK and sell it,’ Miss Abbott said.

But David was caught carrying pot by Customs.

‘Some other guys turned up – he implied they were MI5 or MI6 – and they gave him an ultimatum: he’d get out of prison time if he set up the Stones.’

The British agents were in cahoots, he told Miss Abbott, with the FBI’s notorious Counterintelligence division, known as Cointelpro, which specialised in discrediting American groups deemed to be ‘subversive’.

On Christmas Day in 1969, ‘Jove’s’ new wife, Lotus, gave birth to a daughter, Lili. Their marriage lasted 18 years, though they never lived together.

‘I first met David when I returned to California from Bali, where I had gone searching for God,’ said James Weinstock, Lotus’s brother.

‘One New Year’s Eve, he showed me a gun and said he’d just killed a man who was messing with his car.’ Later he was rumoured to have murdered a TV personality, Peter Ivers, the presenter of a TV show that ‘Jove’ produced.

Miss Abbott said: ‘There was talk that Peter had decided to leave the show and David was angry. ‘I discovered “Jove” wasn’t David’s real name when he shot himself through his heel with his gun.

‘When we checked him into hospital, he used a made-up name and later I found out his real name was Sniderman.’

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1323236/The-Acid-King-confesses-Rolling-Stones-drug-bust-set-MI5-FBI.html

His first half-hearted admission was to Mr Weinstock: ‘He told me he was tight with the Rolling Stones in England, but had a falling-out with them,’ he said.

‘He was arrested for some ser­ious offence, but managed to extric­ate himself, and he said it all looked very suspicious when the police busted the Rolling Stones. They froze him out after that.’

In 1985, Miss Abbott and an old friend, Marianne Faithfull, went out for dinner in Los Angeles.

Miss Abbott introduced her to ‘Jove’ – but Ms Faithfull soon told her she wanted to leave.

Miss Abbott says: ‘When we got into my car, she said, “It’s him, the Acid King. He set up the Redlands bust. Don’t ever see him again”. ’

Miss Abbott added: ‘Two months after the evening with Marianne, I finally had it out with him.
‘To my amazement, he told me everything. He said, “It’s a relief to be able to talk about it”. ’

‘Jove’s’ final confession was made to his daughter, Lili Haydn, now a 40-year-old rock violinist. She said: ‘Shortly before his death he said he was the Acid King.

‘He told me he wasn’t a drug dealer. He felt he was expanding the consciousness of some of the greatest minds of his day.’

Later in his life he was ostracised by his glamorous LA set after his drug use became ‘voluminous’.

He died alone in 2004.

but if he "vanished after the raid" How come they have a picture of "Jove" with Richards supposedly dated 1973?
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Re: Tantra-Induced Delusional Syndrome ("TIDS")

Postby American Dream » Mon Aug 26, 2013 12:54 pm

Great stuff justdrew- though kinda eerie somehow... Anyway, here's this:

Robert Crumb illustrates the Religious Experience of Philip K. Dick


Open Culture has an essay about Crumb's cartoon, and links to a low-res scan of the comic.
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Re: Tantra-Induced Delusional Syndrome ("TIDS")

Postby American Dream » Mon Aug 26, 2013 6:47 pm

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Re: Tantra-Induced Delusional Syndrome ("TIDS")

Postby American Dream » Tue Aug 27, 2013 11:59 am


Tripping Through History

Aldous Huxley surveying the hills outside his Los Angeles home,
under the influence of his first dose of mescaline.

"Primitive man," wrote Aldous Huxley in 1931, "explored the pharmacological avenues of escape from the world with astounding thoroughness. Our ancestors left almost no natural stimulant, or hallucinant, or stupefacient, undiscovered." To Huxley, the urge for transcendence and visionary experience was nothing less than a biological imperative. "Always and everywhere," he asserted, "human beings have felt the radical inadequacy of being their insulated selves and not something else, something wider, something in the Wordsworthian phrase, 'far more deeply interfused.'... I live, yet not I, but wine or opium or peyotyl or hashish liveth in me. To go beyond the insulated self is such a liberation that, even when self-transcendence is through nausea into frenzy, through cramps into hallucinations and coma, the drug-induced experience has been regarded by primitives and even by the highly civilized as intrinsically divine."

The use of mind-altering drugs as religious sacraments was not restricted to a particular time and place but characterized nearly every society on the planet (with the possible exception of certain Eskimo and Polynesian communities). For the Aztecs there was peyote and ololiuqui, a small lentil-like seed containing lysergic acid; the Aborigines of Australia chewed pituri, a desert shrub; the natives of the Upper Amazon had yage, the telepathic vine. Those who floated into a sacred space after ingesting these substances often projected ecstatic qualities onto the plants themselves. Certain scholars believe that the fabled Soma of the ancient Vedic religion in northem India was actually a psychedelic mushroom, and there is evidence that ergot, from which LSD is derived, was the mysterious kykeon used for over two thousand years by the ancient Greeks in the annual Eleusinian Mysteries.'

When Christianity was adopted as the official creed of the Roman Empire in the fourth century, all other religions, including the Mysteries, were banished. Christian propagandists called for the destruction of the pagan drug cults that had spread throughout Europe after the Roman conquest. Like its shamanistic forebears, paganism was rooted in rapture rather than faith or doctrine; its mode of expression was myth and ritual, and those who carried on the forbidden traditions possessed a vast storehouse of knowledge about herbs and special medicaments. The witches of the Middle Ages concocted brews with various hallucinogenic compounds--belladonna, thorn apple, henbane and bufotenine (derived from the sweat gland of the toad Bufo marinus)-- and when the moon was full they flew off on their imaginary broomsticks to commune with spirits. While the passing of time and the destruction of documentary evidence by the church has cancealed the full scope of the ritual use of hallucinogens in Europe, scattered references suggest that a widespread psychedelic underground existed during the Middle Ages. Walter Map, a twentieth-century ecclesiastic, told of certain heretical sects that offered innocent people a "heavenly fold" proclaiming, "Often you will see...angelic visions, in which sustained by their consolation, you can visit whatever place you wish without delay or difficulties."

The ruthless suppression of European witchcraft by the Holy Inquisition coincided with attempts to stamp out indigenous drug use among the colonized natives of the New World. The Spanish outlawed peyote and coca leaves in the Americas, and the British later tried to banish kava use in Tahiti. Such edicts were part of an imperialist effort to impose a new social order that stigmatized the psychedelic experience as a form of madness or possession by evil spirits. It wasn't until the late eighteenth century that industrial civilization produced its own "devil's advocate," which spoke in a passionate and Iyrical voice. The romantic rebellion signified "a return of the repressed" as drugs were embraced by the visionary poets and artists who lived as outcasts in their own society. Laudanum, a tincture of opium, catalyzed the literary talents of Coleridge, Poe, Swinhume, De Quincey, and Elizabeth Barrett Browning, while the best-known French writers, including Baudelaire, de Nerval, and Victor Hugo, gathered at Le Club des Haschischins, a protobohemian enclave in Paris founded by Theophile Gautier in 1844.

For the visionary poets modern society was the bummer, and they often viewed the drug experience as a tortured means to a fuller existence, to a life more innately human. It was with the hope of alleviating his own tortured mental condition that Antonin Artaud made an intercontinental trek in the 1930s to participate in the peyote ritual of the Tarahumara Indians in the Mexican highlands. Artaud did not undertake such a risky journey as a tourist or an anthropologist but as someone who wished to be healed, as a spiritual exile seeking to regain "a Truth which the world of Europe is losing." The desperate Frenchman experienced a monumental bummer--"the cataclysm which was my body...this dislocated assemblage, this piece of damaged geology." Yet somehow, despite the nightmare visions and the somatic discomfort, he managed to scratch out a perception of the Infinite. "Once one has experienced a visionary state of mind," Artaud wrote in The Peyote Dance, "one can no longer confuse the lie with truth. One has seen where one comes from and who one is, and one no longer doubts what one is. There is no emotion or external influence that can divert one from this reality."

An excerpt from Acid Dreams: The Complete Social History of LSD: The CIA, the Sixties and Beyond, by Martin A. Lee and Bruce Shlain (Grove Press)
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Re: Tantra-Induced Delusional Syndrome ("TIDS")

Postby American Dream » Wed Aug 28, 2013 2:21 am


Quanah Parker-Peyote Chief by Quanah Parker Burgess
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Re: Tantra-Induced Delusional Syndrome ("TIDS")

Postby justdrew » Wed Aug 28, 2013 2:43 am

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Re: Tantra-Induced Delusional Syndrome ("TIDS")

Postby American Dream » Wed Aug 28, 2013 9:00 am

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Re: Tantra-Induced Delusional Syndrome ("TIDS")

Postby American Dream » Wed Aug 28, 2013 12:35 pm

The Seeker: A Psychedelic Suburban Youth Doesn’t Find It Tripping. An Interview with Peter Bebergal

RU SIRIUS: Yours is a very interior story of psychedelic seeking, despite some cultural referents. My experience – in turning 18 in 1970 – was more like, “Oh yeah. I caught a glimpse of the infinite divine again last night. That’s cool… but on with the revolution!” I wonder if the focus on finding god is peculiar to you or peculiar to the times you found yourself coming of age in.

My generation was certainly lacking a cohesive counterculture. Even the punks couldn’t agree on what we were actually fighting for. The only thing we knew for sure was that the hippies failed. Charles Manson and Kent State were the ubiquitous images of the sixties when I was growing up in the late 70s and early 80s. Along with these dark shadows was a restless spiritual need. The aquarian age never materialized and the normative Judeo/Christian teachings felt hypocritical and empty. There were no teachers, no gurus, no grown ups we felt we could really trust. For many, myself included, this resulted in an overreaching for meaning. Looking for spiritual insight, it was impossible not to find yourself browsing through the Occult/New Age section of the bookstore. What was there but more overreaching?… a kind of schizophrenic brew; Carlos Castaneda, The Tao of Physics, the Rider-Waite Tarot Deck, and Chariots of the Gods.

Nevertheless, I also think there is something peculiar to the makeup of the addict/alcoholic, an underlying feeling of disconnection and loneliness; a deep need for divine communion of some kind. Sadly it often results in desperation towards self-destruction. So this combined with my generation’s own lack of social/spiritual authenticity meant I was essentially doomed.

RU: It strikes me that psychedelics are both an enhancer and distorter of pattern recognition. It’s like once the mind becomes too conscious and too obsessive about pattern recognition, it becomes delusional.

This is probably the most succinct way of putting it I have heard. It’s essentially what we see happen with Phillip K. Dick. It’s part of the reason why no matter how non-addicting psychedelics might be from a chemical point-of-view, the capacity for the human mind to compulsively search for the same connection/insight over and over again is boundless. This same phenomena can be seen with a certain kind of occultism. Hermeticism can become an exercise in endless connection making and it’s amazing how even the most thoughtful occultists can become conspiracy theorists overnight. Psychedelics, and other forms of non-ordinary consciousness, can readily show that there is more to the human mind, and possibly the universe, than we can perceive normally, but when we lose the ability to critically distance ourselves from these experiences, the danger for delusion is great.

RU: Could you say something about what your peak experience was with psychedelics… and then… without it?

: Sadly, despite my best efforts, I never had what I call a peak experience with psychedelics. They always seemed just out of reach. I would have glimpses, moments where I could literally feel certain doorways open, but they would snap shut if I tried to walk over the threshold. During one trip I felt deeply connected to the woods I was in. It was an autumn day and the leaves rose up and applauded, winking and dancing all around me. I felt a spirit of the world moving around me and I was ready for a true communion, but of course some giggling friend I was with took me out of the reverie. I was trapped in the suburbs. The holy places for me were the copse of trees adjacent to the golf course or a rooftop overlooking the train tracks. But for whatever reason they did not signify deeply enough, and I was always looking around the corner of my experiences for something deeper.

Without psychedelics, I have had what I could call essential peak experiences, but they were more about immanence than transcendence; watching my mother die in the arms of my father as the cancer took her. I felt the spirit of the universe descend into the room that night and I believe I experienced a profound state of non-ordinary consciousness, brought on by the amazing chemistry of deep sadness and wonder. Similarly watching my son being born, and then in even more subtle moments, as when a giant blue heron flew along the window of a train as I looked out.

RU: It always struck me as interesting that psychedelics can be used as a cure for addiction and yet — in a certain percentage of trippers — it seems to bring out the addictive personality. How would you describe that seeming contradiction or odd contrast?

When used a cure, psychedelics are administered in a very specific context by a therapist or within a ritual context as in the Native American Church who use peyote and see a dramatic decrease of alcoholism. I cannot imagine someone getting to the other side of their addiction self-dosing and tripping on their own, but you never know. Bill Wilson, the co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous used LSD after meeting Humphrey Osmond who believed that LSD could induce states akin to delerium tremems and possibly scare alcoholics away from booze. But Wilson saw another potential, a way of bringing about a spiritual experience that he believed was essential for a drunk hoping to get sober. He eventually had to give up the experiments for the overall good of AA, and later was said to have remarked that even though he had deep insights on LSD, that he also discovered there was no escaping from himself. Real recovery was going to have to be a slower, more deliberate process after all.

http://www.acceler8or.com/2011/11/the-s ... outh-doesn’t-find-it-tripping-an-interview-with-peter-bebergal/
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Re: Tantra-Induced Delusional Syndrome ("TIDS")

Postby American Dream » Wed Aug 28, 2013 2:25 pm

The corporatists can't fake the funk:


Peyote Visions - Gwyllm Llwydd (2013)
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Re: Tantra-Induced Delusional Syndrome ("TIDS")

Postby American Dream » Wed Aug 28, 2013 4:02 pm

Quanah Parker & The Comanche Nation

From Wikipedia~Quanah Parker (c. late 1840s - February 23, 1911) was a Native American leader, the son of Comanche chief Peta Nocona and "Anglo-Texan" Cynthia Ann Parker, and the last chief of the Quahadi Comanche Indians.

ImageQuanah Parker's mother, Cynthia Ann Parker, was a member of the large Parker frontier family that settled in east Texas in the 1830s. She was captured in 1836 by Comanches during the raid of Fort Parker near present-day Groesbeck, Texas. She was given the Indian name Nadua ("Someone Found"), and adopted into the Nocona band of Comanches. Cynthia Ann eventually married the Comanche warrior Puhtocnocony (called Peta Nocona by the whites). Quanah was her firstborn son. She also had another son, Pecos ("Peanut") and a daughter, Topsana ("Prairie Flower)" In 1860, Cynthia Ann Parker was recaptured in the battle of Pease River by Texas Rangers under Lawrence Sullivan Ross. Peta Nocona, Quanah, and most of the other men were out hunting when Ross' men attacked. Returning to find the aftermath, they found it difficult to get any information as only a few people were still alive. Meanwhile, Cynthia Ann was reunited with her white family, but years with the Comanches had made her a different person. She frequently demanded to return to her husband, but was never permitted to do so. After Topsana died of an illness, Cynthia Ann starved herself to death.

Soon after the Pease River battle, Peta Nocona was said to be a broken, bitter man. He was later wounded on a raid with Apaches. Already in ill-health, with an older war wound troubling him, he soon died. Before his death, he told Quanah of his mother's capture from the whites. With this revelation came taunts from other tribesmen that Quanah was a half-breed. With Nocona's death, his band split. Quanah joined the Destanyuka band, where Chief Wild Horse took him under his wing. Though he grew to considerable standing as a warrior, he never felt comfortable with the Destanyuka. He left and formed the Quahadi ("Antelope Eaters") band with warriors from another tribe. The Quahadis eventually grew in number, becoming the largest of the Comanche bands, and also the most notorious. Quanah Parker became a leader of the Quahadi, and led them successfully for a number of years.

The Battle of Adobe Walls

In October, 1867, Quanah was among the Comanche chiefs at Medicine Lodge. Though he did not give a speech – his place was as an observer – he did make a statement about not signing the Medicine Lodge Treaty. His band remained free while other Comanches signed...

Founder of The Native American Church Movement

Quanah Parker is credited as the founder of the Native American Church Movement. Parker adopted the peyote religion after reportedly seeing a vision of Jesus Christ while suffering from a near fatal wound following a battle with Federal Troops. Peyote is reported to contain hordenine and tyramine, phenylethylamine alkaloids which act as potent natural antibiotics when taken in a combined form. Parker was given peyote by a Ute medicine man to cure the infections of his wounds. During the peyote experience, Parker claimed he heard the voice of Jesus Christ who then appeared to him, and told him in order to atone for his many killings and misdeeds, he must forsake a life of violence and conflict and take the peyote religion to the Indian Peoples. Parker's words and teachings comprise the core of the Native American Church Doctrine and the "Peyote Road."

Parker taught that the sacred peyote medicine was the sacrament given to the Indian Peoples by the Lord Jesus Christ, and was to be used with water when taking communion in a traditional Native American Church medicine ceremony. Parker created the "half-moon" style of the peyote ceremony. The "cross" ceremony later evolved in Oklahoma due to Kiowa influences introduced by John Wilson, a Kiowa Indian who traveled extensively with Parker during the early days of the Native American Church movement. The Native American Church was the first truly "American" religion based on Christianity outside of the Latter Day Saints.

Parker's most famous teaching regarding the Spirituality of the Native American Church:

The White Man goes into his church and talks about Jesus. The Indian goes into his Tipi and talks with Jesus.

http://www.fold3.com/page/1928_quanah_p ... he_nation/
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Re: Tantra-Induced Delusional Syndrome ("TIDS")

Postby justdrew » Wed Aug 28, 2013 6:22 pm

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